David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scots1,2,3,4

M, #4231, b. circa 1080, d. 24 May 1153
FatherMáel-Coluim (Malcolm III) mac Donnchada "Canmore") (?) King of Scotland (Alba)3,4,5,6,7,8 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland9,3,4,5,8,10 b. c 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited3 Dec 2020
     David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scots was born circa 1080; Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld page) says b. 1083/84.11,12,1,3,4,5 He married Maude (Matilda) de Huntingdon Queen of the Scots, Countess of Huntingdon & Northumberland, daughter of Waltheof II (?) Earl of Huntingdon, Northampton & Northumberland and Judith (?) of Lens, between 1113 and 1114;
Her 2nd husband.13,12,1,14,3,15,4,5,16,17
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scots died on 24 May 1153 at Carlisle, co. Cumberland, England.12,1,3,15,4,5
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scots was buried after 24 May 1153 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1080, Scotland
     DEATH     24 May 1153 (aged 72–73), Carlisle, City of Carlisle, Cumbria, England
     Scottish Monarch and Saint. Son of Malcolm III Canmore and Saint Margaret of Scotland. He succeeded his brother Alexander in 1124. David accelerated the process, begun by his mother, of introducing the Roman Catholic church into Scotland, displacing the Celtic church. He founed many abbeys, including Melrose, Holyrood, Paisley, and Dryburgh. He also introduced the orders of the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller into Scotland. He married his queen, Matilda in 1114. They had 2 sons and 2 daughters, all of whom pre-deceased their father. At the time of David's death at the old age of 73, Scotland stretched further south than ever before or since. Though never formally canonized, David is recognised on both Catholic and Protestant calendars. His feast day is May 24. He was succeeded by his grandson, William I "The Lion." Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Malcolm III 1031–1093
          Saint Margaret of Scotland 1045–1093
     Spouse
          Matilda of Huntingdon 1074–1130
     Siblings
          Donnchadh Duncan II 1060–1094
          Edward Prince of Scotland 1068–1093
          Edmund of Scotland 1070–1105
          Aethelred of Scotland 1072–1093
          Edgar, King of Scots 1074–1107
          Alexander I, King of Scots 1077–1124
          Matilda Dunkeld 1079–1118
          Mary Canmore 1082–1116
     Children
          Henry de Huntingdon 1114–1152
     BURIAL     Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 20 Feb 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8421389.12,2,3,5,18
     ; Per Burke's: After Earl [of Huntingdon] Simon's [de St. Liz] death his widow Maud married DAVID I of Scotland, who consequently became Earl of Huntingdon too, keeping the Earldom even after he succeeded his brother as King of Scots. He sided with the EMPRESS MAUD against STEPHEN but came to terms with the latter and made the Earldom over to his son Henry."19 GAV-24 EDV-24.

; Per Genealogics:
     “David I 'the Saint' was born about 1080, the youngest of the sons of Malcolm III Canmore, king of Scots, and Margaret of Wessex. David was sent in 1093 to England along with his sister Matilda (who in 1100 married Henry I of England) and remained for several years at the English court. In 1107, when his elder brother Alexander succeeded to the throne, David became prince of Cumbria with a territory which, as well as part of Cumberland, included all southern Scotland except the Lothians. By his marriage in 1113 to Maud, widow of Simon de St. Liz, the Norman earl of Northampton and daughter of Waltheof, the Saxon earl of Northumbria, he became earl of Huntingdon.
     “In 1124 he succeeded his brother on the Scottish throne; in 1127 he swore, with the other great barons of England, to maintain the right of his niece Empress Matilda to the English crown. In 1135 he took up arms on her behalf when Stephen seized the throne and he penetrated into England as far as Durham, where peace was purchased by the confirmation of the earldom of Huntingdon on his son Henry and the promise of the earldom of Northumberland. In 1138 the war was renewed and David, deserted by Bruce and others of his Anglo-Norman vassals who owned large estates in England, was signally defeated at the Battle of the Standards near Northallerton.
     “The next year a second peace was concluded when the promised earldom of Northumberland was bestowed on Prince Henry. The rest of David's reign---which marks the end of Celtic and the beginning of Feudal Scotland---was devoted to welding the different races of Scotland into one nation, the civilising of the people by the erection of burghs, promoting trade, manufacturing and commerce, and founding or restoration of bishoprics and religious houses.
     “According to Bellenden, 'the crown was left indigent through application of great rents to the church', a state of matters that led James I to remark, while standing by David's tomb at Dunfermline, that 'he was ane sair sanct for the crown'. He is often called St.David though he was never formally canonised, but his name was inserted in the calendar prefixed to Laud's Prayer Book for Scotland (1637). He died at Carlisle and was succeeded by his grandson Malcolm.”.4

; This is the same person as ”David I of Scotland” at Wikipedia.20

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 67.
2. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 314.4
David I "The Saint" (?) King of Scots was also known as Dabid mac Máil Choluim (?) King of Scots.4

Reference: Weis [1992:147-8] Line 170-22.21

; Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): “[2m.] David I "the Saint" (Daibhidh I), Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, King of Scotland (1124-53), *ca 1083/84, +Carlisle, Cumbria 24.5.1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife; m.1113/14 Matilda (*ca 1074, +23.4.1130/22.4.1131, bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire), dau.of Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton”.3

; Per Med Lands:
     "DAVID, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his wife Margaret of England ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). He is named, and his parentage given, by Roger of Hoveden, who lists him as the sixth son of his parents[413]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun names "Edward, Edmund, Ethelred, Edgar, Alexander and…David" as the sons of King Malcolm and his wife[414]. He was designated Prince of Cumbria in [1107][415]. "David comes" made donations to the monks of Durham by undated charter which names "frater meus Eadgarus rex", witnessed by "Mathildis Reginæ et Willelmi filii sui"[416], presumably referring to his sister Matilda Queen of England which dates the document to before Jun 1118. Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, de iure uxoris. "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk by charter dated to [1120], witnessed by "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…"[417]. "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[418]. Inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concern land owned by the church of Glasgow[419]. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland. Having at first supported Empress Matilda's right to succeed her father Henry I King of England, he made peace with King Stephen, agreeing in 1136 to resign his English earldoms to his son Henry[420]. The peace was short-lived, King David being defeated by King Stephen at the battle of the Standard 22 Aug 1138. "Rex Scottorum" (no name) donated "terram de Eldune…Dernewic" to Melrose abbey, for the souls of "fratris mei Ædgari et alios fratrem et sororis mearum et uxoris mee Matild et…Henrici filii mei", by charter dated "die Venis crastino Ascensionis dni…quo Stephanus rex Anglie captus est" (29 Apr 1141)[421]. Robert of Torigny records the death in 1153 of "David rex Scotiæ"[422]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "David" reigned for 29 years and 3 months, died "in Carlelle", and was buried "in Dumfermline"[423]. The Chronicle of Melrose records the death "IX Kal Jun" in 1153 of King David[424]. John of Fordun’s Scotichronicon (Continuator) records the death "IX Kal Jun" in 1153 of "rex…sanctus David junior filius Malcolmi et S. Margaretæ Scotorum reginæ" and his burial at Dunfermline[425].
     "m (1113) as her second husband, MATILDA [Maud] of Huntingdon, widow of SIMON de St Lis Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, daughter of WALTHEOF Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton & his wife Judith de Lens [Boulogne] ([1071/76]-[23 Apr 1130/22 Apr 1131], bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire). Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the marriage of Matilda eldest daughter of Judith and "Earl Simon[426]. Orderic Vitalis records that David King of Scotland married “filiam...Guallevi comitis et Judith consobrinæ regis” who brought him “binosque comitatus Northamtonæ et Huntendonæ” which “Simon Silvanectensis comes” had possessed with her[427]. Robert of Torigny records that the wife of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" was "filiam Gallevi comitis et Judith consobrini regis", naming "Symon Silvanectensis comes" as her first husband[428]. "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[429]. "David comes filii Malcolmi regis Scotorum" founded the monastery of Kelso by charter dated to [1119/24] witnessed by "Matilda comitissa, Henrico filio comitis…Willo nepote comitis…"[430]. "Matildis comitissa…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[431]."
Med Lands cites:
[413] RH I, p. 122.
[414] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, XVI, p. 203.
[415] Duncan (2002), pp. 60-1.
[416] Early Scottish Charters XXIX, p. 23.
[417] Early Scottish Charters XXXV, p. 26.
[418] Kelso, Tome I, 1, p. 3.
[419] Early Scottish Charters L, p. 46.
[420] CP VI 641.
[421] Bannatyne Club (1837) Liber Sancte Marie de Melros: Munimenta Vetustiora Monasterii Cisterciensis de Melros (Edinburgh) ("Melrose Liber"), Tome I, 1, p. 3.
[422] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1153, p. 274.
[423] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175.
[424] Chronicle of Melrose, 1153, p. 10.
[425] Johannis de Fordun (Goodall), Vol. I, Lib. VIII, Cap. I, p. 447.
[426] Riley, H. (ed.) (1854) Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland (London) ("Ingulph's Chronicle"), p. 146.
[427] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 402.
[428] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1125, p. 172.
[429] Early Scottish Charters XXXV, p. 26.
[430] Kelso, Tome I, 1, p. 3.
[431] Early Scottish Charters L, p. 46.5

; Per Med Lands:
     "MATILDA [Matilda] of Huntingdon ([1071/74]-[23 Apr 1130/22 Apr 1131], bur Scone Abbey, Perthshire). Ingulph's Chronicle of the Abbey of Croyland records the marriage of Matilda eldest daughter of Judith and "Earl Simon[674]. Orderic Vitalis records that David King of Scotland married “filiam...Guallevi comitis et Judith consobrinæ regis” who brought him “binosque comitatus Northamtonæ et Huntendonæ” which “Simon Silvanectensis comes” had possessed with her[675]. Robert of Torigny records that the wife of "David [rex Scotiæ] frater [Alexandri]" was "filiam Gallevi comitis et Judith consobrini regis", naming "Symon Silvanectensis comes" as her first husband[676]. "Matilde comitisse, Henrico filio comitis…" witnessed the charter dated to [1120] under which "David comes filius Malcolmi Regis Scottorum" founded the abbey of Selkirk[677]. "Matildis comitissa…" witnessed inquisitions by "David…Cumbrensis regionis princeps", dated 1124, concerning land owned by the church of Glasgow[678].
     "m firstly ([1090]) SIMON de Senlis [Saint Lis], son of RANOUL "le Riche" & his wife --- (-Priory of La Charité-sur-Loire [1111], bur Priory of La Charité-sur-Loire). Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton de iure uxoris.
     "m secondly (1113) DAVID of Scotland Prince of Cumbria, son of MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland & his wife Margaret of England ([1080]-Carlisle 24 May 1153, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife). Earl of Northampton and Huntingdon de iure uxoris. He succeeded his brother in 1124 as DAVID I King of Scotland."
Med Lands cites:
[674] Ingulph's Chronicle, p. 146.
[675] Orderic Vitalis (Prévost), Vol. III, Liber VIII, XXII, p. 402.
[676] Chronique de Robert de Torigny I, 1125, p. 172.
[677] Early Scottish Charters XXXV, p. 26.
[678] Early Scottish Charters L, p. 46.17
He was Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton between 1111 and 1130.3,20 He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 403-405] DAVID (I) THE SAINT Scotland, 23(?) April 1124-24 May 1153. Titles: king of Scotland, earl of Huntingdon and Northampton (from 1113) and prince of Cumbria (1113-1124). Born: c1084. Died: Carlisle, 24 May 1153, aged about 69. Buried: Dunfermline Abbey. Married: 1113, Matilda (c1072-c1 130), dau. Waltheof, earl of Northumberland, and widow of Simon de St Liz, earl of Northampton and Huntingdon: 4 children. David was the youngest son of MALCOLM III and his English wife Margaret. He was about forty when he came to the throne, mature in his character, his outlook and his ability to govern. He had spent much of his youth, since the year 1093, at the court of HENRY I of England, who was his brother-in-law. Since his infancy he had been raised by Margaret with a respect for learning and the church, and it seems he had a tremendous respect for fair play, a trait let down only in his old age when he ultimately failed to uphold his promise of support for MATILDA. In 1107 David's elder brother ALEXANDER inherited the Scottish throne. Apparently their elder brother EDGAR had entreated that Scotland be divided between them, with David ruling the Lowlands south of the Clyde. Alexander did not honour this, and though David threatened to lead an army against him, it came to nothing. It was not until 1113, when David married Matilda, and inherited vast lands in Northumberland, Northampton and Huntingdon, that Alexander relented and allowed David to become sub-king of the Lowlands. Since David also became earl of Huntingdon he was both a Norman baron and a Scottish king, which was immensely important in understanding the power that David was able to wield and the respect he had to be accorded by his peers.
When David became king in 1124 he continued the reforms started by his mother and brothers, but it was under David that it all came into shape. Chief of these reforms was the feudalisation of lowland Scotland. Tracts of land were given to Anglo-Norman barons in exchange for their loyalty and service. Amongst them were Robert de Brus, the ancestor of ROBERT BRUCE, who was given the lordship of Annandale, and Walter Fitzalan, who became High Steward of Scotland and thus the ancestor of the Stewart dynasty. This process was described by the disgruntled Highlanders as "invasion by invitation", and led to at least two revolts during David's reign (by ANGUS, earl of Moray, the grandson of LULACH, in 1130 who was killed at the battle of Strathcarro; and by Wimund, bishop of the Isles in 1140) and eventually the declaration of independence by SOMERLED of Argyll after David's death. Nevertheless, David's gradual reform brought a cohesiveness to Scotland that it had previously never enjoyed, particularly in the strength of the church and the world of learning. He founded the bishoprics of Aberdeen, Brechin, Caithness, Dunblane and Ross as well as the monasteries at Holyrood, Melrose, Kinloss, Newbattle and Dundrennan. He also forged strong links with Rome. Even during his life he had come to be regarded as a saintly king by his people, the epithet Saint David remained after his death, even though he was never formally canonized. It was David who really forged Scotland as a prosperous kingdom, introducing a strong coinage, and developing towns like Berwick, Edinburgh, Jedburgh, Stirling and Perth as major trading centres from which the king drew revenues. David also redrew the Scottish administrative map, creating the counties which remained until the reorganization of 1975. Justice was dispensed by a system of justiciars. In all these things David created the modern Scotland.
In military matters he was less strong and only partly successful. In 1127 he agreed, along with other English barons, to recognize Henry I's daughter, MATILDA, as the next ruler of England. He used this as an excuse in 1135, on the death of Henry and the succession of STEPHEN, to invade northern England, laying claim to Northumberland and Cumberland initially in the name of Matilda. The next three years saw considerable bloodshed in Northumberland where David's soldiers committed awful atrocities. Eventually David was defeated by the northern barons under Thurstan, archbishop of York, at Cowton Moor, near Northallerton, on 22 August 1138 at the battle of the Standard. David continued to press his claims in the north and Stephen, unable to fight his war on two fronts, eventually reached an agreement whereby David was granted the earldom of Northumberland provided he swore fealty to Stephen. The earldom was bestowed upon David's son, Henry, who was the king designate.
David switched sides again to support Matilda when she gained the upper hand in February 1141 and he ventured as far south as London for her coronation. However, he was expelled from London in September by Stephen's troops and only narrowly escaped back to Durham without being captured. Thereafter he remained on the sidelines, a nominal supporter of the Empress, but not engaging in further conflict. In 1149 he gained a promise from Matilda's son HENRY (II) that, should he become king, he would grant David the lands of Northumberland and Cumbria. When David died at Carlisle in May 1153 he almost certainly regarded himself as lord of all the lands from Caithness in the north to Cumbria and Northumberland in the south. Though these southern lands were never formally part of the kingdom of Scotland, David doubtless believed they would be.
Neither of David's own sons came to the throne. His firstborn, Malcolm, had been murdered in infancy, probably about 1114. Henry, who was groomed as the next king, died in 1152, aged thirty-eight. Henry's young son, MALCOLM, was promptly declared the king designate, though he was only twelve. between 23 April 1124 and 24 May 1153.22,23,20
; he witnessed a charter in 1128 for the foundation of Holyrood Abbey by King David I for the Canons Regular of St. Augustine.24

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:viii. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 403-405. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002908&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DavidIdied1153B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 170-20, op. 161-2. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  11. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  12. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3.
  13. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 148-24, p. 130. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  14. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  15. [S1896] Douglas Richardson, "Richardson email 22 June 2005: "Extended Pedigree of Counts of Boulogne-sur-Mer"," e-mail message from e-mail address (https://groups.google.com/g/soc.genealogy.medieval/c/44eb7V2WEXc/m/5ixO37yx3noJ) to e-mail address, 22 June 2005. Hereinafter cited as "Richardson email 22 June 2005."
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maud of Huntingdon: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049982&tree=LEO
  17. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLISH%20NOBILITY%20MEDIEVAL.htm#Matildadied1131
  18. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 04 July 2020), memorial page for David I, King of Scots (1080–24 May 1153), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8421389, citing Dunfermline Abbey, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8421389. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  19. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Huntingdon Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  20. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_I_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  21. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, pp. 147-8, Line 170-22.
  22. [S599] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 28 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 14, Ed. 1, family # 1829 (n.p.: Release date: October 20, 1997, unknown publish date).
  23. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 170-22, pp. 147-148.
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, William de Graham, of Abercorn: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00127771&tree=LEO
  25. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:v.
  26. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:vi.
  27. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, pp. 113-114, HUNTINGDON 3:iii.

Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots1,2,3

M, #4232, b. 1077, d. 23 April 1124
FatherMáel-Coluim (Malcolm III) mac Donnchada "Canmore") (?) King of Scotland (Alba)2,3,4,5 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland2,6,3,5,7 b. c 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
Last Edited3 Dec 2020
     Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was born in 1077.8,2,3 He married Sibylla (?), daughter of Henry I "Beauclerc" (?) King of England and Sibylla Corbet of Alcester, circa 1107.9,1,2,3
Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was buried in 1124 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.10


Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots died on 23 April 1124 at Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland.8,11,1,10,3
Alexander I "The Fierce" (?) King of Scots was buried circa 27 April 1124 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.1,3


     He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 402-403] ALEXANDER (I) THE FIERCE Scotland, 8 January 1 107-23(?) April 1124. A younger son of MALCOLM III and his English queen Margaret, he succeeded his brother EDGAR. It is possible that Alexander already ruled parts of Scotland as sub-king to Edgar who seemed to have little interest in Scotland beyond Lothian, and when Alexander succeeded to the throne it was intended that he share the kingdom with his brother DAVID. Alexander chose not to, and David threatened to invade the kingdom, but was never able to raise a sufficiently large army. It was not until 1113 that Alexander granted David territory in Strathclyde and the Borders. Upon his accession, Alexander married Sybilla, the fifteen year old illegitimate daughter of HENRY I. Henry was already Alexander's brother-in-law, as Henry had married Alexander's sister Edith. During the first phase of his reign Alexander was clearly Henry's vassal: he even accompanied Henry in his campaign into Wales against GRUFFYDD AP CYNAN in 1114. However, by the second half of his reign, Alexander had shifted back toward the heart of old Scotland, or Alba, and had taken up residence at Scone. It may be now that he earned his nickname of "the Fierce", apparently after the ferocious way he quelled an uprising by the men of Moray. It may have been through such an indomitable strength of character that Alexander began to win over the Highland Scots, despite considerable opposition. Alexander began a programme of castle construction, including the one at Stirling. His court became one of splendour - there is mention of Arab stallions and Turkish men-at-arms. Alexander also continued his mother's reforms in anglicising the Scottish church, and was the first to introduce coinage into Scotland. His reforms saw the introduction of the first sheriffs in Scotland as controller's of the king's peace. Thus, by the end of Alexander's reign, there had been a measurable shift toward uniting the older Scottish culture with the new Anglo-Norman world. Alexander had achieved this through his own strength and willpower, leaving a steady base for his brother David. Alexander died at Stirling Castle and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey. between 1107 and 1124.12,10,2

Family 1

Child

Family 2

Sibylla (?) b. c 1091, d. 12 Jul 1122

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:vi. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  8. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  9. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 95, Fitz PIERS 2.
  10. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 402-403. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  11. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, pp. 183-185, NORMANDY 8:xiii.
  12. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  13. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 397.

Edgar (?) King of Scots1,2,3

M, #4233, b. circa 1074, d. 8 January 1106
FatherMáel-Coluim (Malcolm III) mac Donnchada "Canmore") (?) King of Scotland (Alba)4,3,5,6 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland4,7,3,6,8 b. c 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
Last Edited3 Dec 2020
     Edgar (?) King of Scots was born circa 1074.9,4,3
Edgar (?) King of Scots died on 8 January 1106 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland.9,1,4,3
Edgar (?) King of Scots was buried after 8 January 1107 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.1,3


     He was King of Scotland: EDGAR Scotland, October 1097-8 January 1107. Edgar was the son of MALCOLM Ill and his second wife, Margaret, the sister of EDGAR THE ATHELING. In 1095 WILLIAM II declared Edgar king of Scotland, and it is likely that Edgar claimed lands in Lothian and Bernicia. No doubt skirmishes continued over the next couple of years, but in October 1097 Edgar succeeded in deposing both Donald and Edmund.
It is surprising that Edgar did not face a revolt from the Highlands, as he showed them little respect. Soon after his accession Magnus III of Norway led a major expedition to his territories in northern Britain. He deposed the earls of Orkney, PAUL and ERLEND, who were Edgar's step-brothers, and set off on a wave of conquest around the Scottish coast. Edgar quite happily gave Magnus sovereignty over the Hebrides. These islands were heavily populated by Norse or Gallo-Norse and seemed far removed from Edgar's world. Part of this arrangement, however, meant that the holy island of Iona came under Norwegian rule, which must have alienated many Scots.
Although Edgar was sensible enough not to encourage a wave of Norman settlement in Scotland, he increased his ties with England. He was already beholden to William II for gaining the throne, and was present at the coronation of HENRY I in August 1100. Three months later Henry married Edgar's sister Edith. This had been a move by Henry to tie himself closer to the Saxon kings, as Edith was the great-granddaughter of EDMUND II, but it also tightened the link with the Scottish king. Edgar preferred to stay in close contact with his Saxon and Norman colleagues. He remained in Lothian, living mostly in Edinburgh, and it does not appear that he ventured far beyond. He played the part of a Norman vassal to the letter and it is of little surprise that by this time the Norman kings of England began to regard Scotland, certainly the border territory, as their domain.
Edgar reigned for a little over nine years. He was only in his mid-thirties when he died early in 1107. He never married and was succeeded by his brother ALEXANDER. between October 1097 and 8 January 1107.10,4,3

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:v. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 397, 402. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  9. [S742] Ed. Antonia Fraser, The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England (revised and updated) (n.p.: University of California Press, Berkely, 1998, unknown publish date), p. 19.
  10. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.

Edward (?)1,2

M, #4234, b. circa 1070, d. 16 November 1093
FatherMáel-Coluim (Malcolm III) mac Donnchada "Canmore") (?) King of Scotland (Alba)3,2,4,5,6 b. 1031, d. 13 Nov 1093
MotherSaint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland3,2,6,7 b. c 1045, d. 16 Nov 1093
Last Edited3 Dec 2020
     Edward (?) was born circa 1070.2
Edward (?) died on 16 November 1093 at Edwardisle nr Alnwick, Jedburgh, Scotland.8,3,2
Edward (?) was buried after 16 November 1093 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, Scotland.2


     

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 397. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  3. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  8. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:iii. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  9. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).

Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland1,2,3

M, #4235, b. 1033, d. 1099
FatherDuncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland4,3,5,6,7,8,9 b. c 1001, d. 14 Aug 1040
MotherSuthen (?) of Northumbria3,10,6,7,9 b. 1009, d. 1040
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited8 Jul 2020
     Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland was born in 1033.11,4,3,6
Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland was buried in 1099 at St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1033
     DEATH     1099 (aged 65–66)
     Scottish Monarch. Known as Donald Bane or Donald the White, he was the son of Duncan I and Elflaed. When he acceded he was a relatively old man. A traditionalist, he did not like the English influence which had become a feature of the reign of his older brother Malcolm Canmore. Donald reigned breifly before being deposed by Duncan II, Malcolm Canmore's son. Donald killed Duncan, and resumed his throne six months later. However, Malcolm Canmore's other sons accepted English assistance and defeated Donald, imprisoning him. Donald died at Rescobie at the age of 66, and was the last of the Scottish kings to be buried at the holy island of Iona. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Duncan I 1001–1040
     Siblings
          Malcolm III 1031–1093
     Children
          Bethoc Bane Johnston 1095–1160
     BURIAL     St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 8 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8614911.12
Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland died in 1099 at Rescobie, Forfarshire, Scotland; blinded and imprisoned.3,1,4,6
     ; Per Genealogics:
     “Donald was born about 1033, the son of Duncan I 'the Gracious', king of Scots, and Sibylla Bearsson. Donald's activities during the reign of his elder brother Malcolm III Canmore are not recorded. It appears that he was not his brother's chosen heir, contrary to earlier custom, but that Malcolm had designated Edward, his eldest son by Margaret of Wessex, as the king to come. If this was Malcolm's intent, his death and that of Edward on campaign in Northumbria in November 1093 confounded his plans. These deaths were followed very soon afterwards by that of Queen Margaret.
     “John of Fordun reports that Donald invaded the kingdom after Margaret's death 'at the head of a numerous band', and laid siege to Edinburgh which held Malcolm's sons by Margaret. Fordun had Edgar Atheling, concerned for his nephews' wellbeing, taking the sons of Malcolm and Margaret to England. Andrew of Wyntoun's much simpler account has Donald becoming king and banishing his nephews. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records only that Donald was chosen as king and expelled the English from the court.
     “In May 1094 Donald's nephew Duncan, son of Malcolm and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, invaded at the head of an army of Anglo-Normans and Northumbrians, aided by his half-brother Edmund and his father-in-law Gospatric, earl of Northumberland, 'earl of Dunbar'. This invasion succeeded in placing Duncan on the throne as Duncan II, but an uprising defeated his allies and he was compelled to send away his foreign troops. Duncan was then killed on 12 November 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns. The Annals of Ulster say that Duncan was killed on the orders of Donald and Edmund.
     “Donald resumed power, probably with Edmund as his designated heir. Donald was an elderly man by the standards of the day, approaching sixty years old, and without any known sons, so that an heir was clearly required. William of Malmesbury says that Edmund bargained 'for half the kingdom', suggesting that Donald granted his nephew an appanage to rule.
     “Edgar, eldest surviving son of Malcolm and Margaret, obtained the support of William II Rufus, although other matters delayed Edgar's return on the coat-tails of an English army led by his uncle Edgar Atheling. Donald's fate is not entirely clear. William of Malmesbury tells us that he was 'slain by the craftiness of David (the later David I)...and by the strength of William (Rufus). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says of Donald that he was expelled, while the Annals of Tigernach have him blinded by his brother. John of Fordun, following the king-lists, writes that Donald was 'blinded, and doomed to eternal imprisonment' by Edgar. The place of his imprisonment was said to be Rescobie, by Forfar in Angus. The sources differ as to whether Donald was first buried at Dunfermline Abbey or Dunkeld Cathedral, but agree that his remains were later moved to Iona.
     “Donald left two daughters but no sons. His daughter Bethóc married Uchtred of Tynedale, the probable ancestor of the barons of Tyndale and the Tyndale/Tindal family. Their daughter Hextilda married Richard Comyn, justiciar of Lothian. The claims of John II Comyn, lord of Badenoch to the crown of Scotland in the Great Cause came from Donald through Bethóc and Hextilda.”.6

; Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): “B2. Donald III Bane, Mormaer of Gowrie, co-King of Scotland (1093-94)+(1094-97), *ca 1033, +blinded and imprisoned Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, bur Dunkeld Abbey later removed to Isle of Iona; m.NN”.3

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 314.6

; This is the same person as ”Donald III of Scotland” at Wikipedia.13

; Per Med Lands:
     "DONALD (-in prison Rescobie, Forfarshire 1099, bur Dunkeld Abbey, later transferred to Isle of Iona). Matthew Paris names him as brother of King Malcolm, and records that he was elected by the Scots to succeed his brother in 1093 as DONALD III "Bane" King of Scotland[280]. Florence of Worcester records that "Dufenaldum regis Malcolmi fratrem" was elected king after his brother's death but that "filius regis Malcolmi Dunechain" expelled "patruum suum Dufenaldum"[281]. According to Florence of Worcester, he expelled all the English from the Scottish court[282]. "Douenald filius Conchat Regis" made donations "cum ceteris regibus…Duncano rege Edgaro et Alexandro et David fratribus"[283]. This charter is undated and the reference to the four brothers all as kings indicates that it is probably spurious. Florence of Worcester records that King Donald was deposed in 1094 by his nephew Duncan, with help from the English and Normans[284]. The Annals of Inisfallen record that "Domnall son of Donnchadh” killed “Donnchadh son of Mael Coluim king of Alba” in 1094 and “took the kingship of Alba”[285]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his uncle Donald…again usurped the kingship" after the death of "Duncan, King Malcolm’s illegitimate son" and reigned for three years[286]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitorem Eadgarum" led an army to Scotland in [1097] to place "consobrinum suum Eadgarum Malcolmi regis filium" on the Scottish throne after expelling "patruo suo Dufenaldo"[287]. William of Malmesbury records that King Duncan II "was murdered by the wickedness of his uncle Donald" and that the latter was "dispatched by the contrivance of David, the youngest brother and the power of [King] William [II]"[288]. He was imprisoned. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Donald mac Donchat" was captured "a Edgar mac Malcolm", blinded, died in "Rosolpin" and was buried "in Dunkelden", transferred to Iona[289].
     "Med Lands cites:
[280] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1874) Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora (London) (“MP”), Vol. II, 1092, p. 33.
[281] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon, Tomus II (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), p. 32.
[282] Florence of Worcester, 1093, p. 196.
[283] Early Scottish Charters XIII, p. 11.
[284] Florence of Worcester, 1093, p. 196, and RH I, p. 147.
[285] Annals of Inisfallen, 1094.4, p. 249.
[286] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, XXIV, p. 213.
[287] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 41.
[288] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) 400, p. 349.
[289] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175.7
Donald III Bane "the White" (?) King of Scotland was also known as Domnall Bán mac Donnchada (Donaldbane), (?) King of Scotls (Alba).14,6 GAV-24 EDV-24. He was King of Scotland: [Ashley, p. 400] DONALD III BANE (THE WHITE) sometimes called DONALBAIN Scotland 13 November 1093-May 1094 (deposed); restored 12 November 1094- October 1097. Born: c1033. Died: Rescobie, 1099, aged 66. Buried: Dunkeld Abbey, later removed to Iona.
Married (name and date unknown): 1 daughter. Donald was the younger brother of MALCOLM III and for most of his life probably had no designs on the Scottish throne. He was almost certainly made mórmaer of Gowrie around the year 1060 but there is no record that he played any part in Malcolm's affairs. It is possible that the two brothers were estranged and that Donald did not support Malcolm's and Margaret's reforms. He lived in exile in Ireland and the Western Isles and thereby endeared himself to the pro-Gaelic party in Scotland. After the death of Malcolm and his heir Edward, it was Donald who was raised to the throne during the days of confusion over the succession. Donald was sixty, and although his hair had probably turned white (hence his nickname) he was evidently strong and hale of body. Donald and his supporters promptly expelled the Norman and Saxon refugees in Scotland. As a consequence Malcolm's eldest son, DUNCAN, who had hitherto also shown no interest in the kingship, but who had lived as a hostage at the courts of WILLIAM I and II of England for many years, came into the picture. He was supported by William II and his army defeated Donald and drove him out of Scotland. Duncan held the throne for only seven months before being defeated by Donald at the battle of Monthecin in November 1094, after which Donald was restored to the throne. However, Donald now divided the kingdom between himself and his nephew EDMUND, with Donald's rule amongst the heart of his supporters in the Highlands north of the Forth/Clyde valley. This arrangement survived for less than three years as another of Malcolm's sons, EDGAR, received greater support from William II and deposed Donald and Edmund in October 1097. Donald was blinded and imprisoned at Rescobie in Forfarshire, where he died some eighteen months later. He was buried at Dunkeld Abbey but later his remains were removed to Iona by his adherents. He was the last Scottish king to be buried there, and thus marks the end of the old tradition of Gaelic kings. between 1093 and 1098.15,2,4

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), pp. 226-227, SCOTLAND 24. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 198. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  4. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  5. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Domnall Bán mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022609&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  7. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIdied1040B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Donnchad mac Crináin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022594&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIdied1040B
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Suthen (of Northumbria): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022595&tree=LEO
  11. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 08 July 2020), memorial page for Donald III, King of Scots (1033–1099), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8614911, citing St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8614911. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_III_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  14. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/dunca001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  15. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bethóc: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022610&tree=LEO

Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling1,2

M, #4236, b. 1016, d. 1057
FatherEdmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England1,2,3,4 b. 993, d. 30 Nov 1016
MotherEaldgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England1,2,5,4 d. a 1017
ReferenceGAV25 EDV25
Last Edited3 Dec 2020
     Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling was born in 1016.6,7,8,2 He married Agatha (?) of Poland, daughter of Mieszko II Lambert (?) King of Poland and Rixa (Richeza) (?) Countess of Pfalz-Lorraine, Queen of Poland, at Kyiv (Kiev), Ukraine (now).8,1,9,10
Edward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling died in 1057 at London, City of London, Greater London, England.11,7,8,2
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Edward 'Atheling' was born in 1016, the son of Edmund II Ironside, king of England, and Ealdgyth. After the accession of Knud 'den Store', by the treaty of Olney Knud was charged with the safe-keeping of Edmund and Edward Atheling. However Knud had no intention of raising up future opponents for his own sons. He sent the young Athelings overseas with the intent that they be put to death. Apparently the two princes were sent to the king of the Swedes ('ad regem Suanorum') with the intent of meeting a swift end, but the Swedish king relented and sent them eastwards. Edward is believed to have lived for a period in Rus. However Poland was the more likely Slavic destination for the Athelings in late 1016 or 1017. The favourable reception the Athelings received in Poland was not what Knud had intended.
     "Edward is believed to have gone to Hungary in 1046 as part of the army that placed András I on the Hungarian throne. By then Edward was married to Agatha, most probably the daughter of Mieszko II, king of Poland, and Richeza de Lorraine, and a relative of the Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich III. They had three children of whom only their daughter Margaret would have progeny.
     "Edward died in 1057 soon after returning to England with his family."10 GAV-25 EDV-25 GKJ-26.

; Per Med Lands:
     "EDWARD ([1016/17]-London 19 Apr 1057, bur London St Paul's). Maybe twin with his brother Edmund or, as noted above, born posthumously. He is the first prince in the Wessex royal family to have been named after his father, which suggests that he may have been born posthumously which could have justified this departure from the normal naming practice. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Canute "banished [him] into Hungary … [where] he grew up to be a good man"[1906]. Orderic Vitalis names "Edward et Edmund" as the two sons of king Edmund II, specifying that King Canute sent them to Denmark to be killed but that his brother "Suenon [error for Harald] roi de Danemark" sent them "comme ses neveux en otage au roi des Huns" where Edward "épousa la fille du roi et regna sur les Huns"[1907]. Florence of Worcester specifies that the infants were first "sent to the king of the Swedes to be killed [but the latter] sent them to Solomon King of Hungary to spare their lives and have them brought up at his court"[1908]. According to Adam of Bremen, the two brothers were "condemned to exile in Russia"[1909]. Geoffrey Gaimar (in an altogether confusing account) names "Li uns…Edgar…li alters…Edelret" as the children of King Edmund, recounting that they were sent first to Denmark and later to "Russie [Susie], e vint en terre de Hungrie"[1910]. Edward’s life in exile is discussed in detail by Ronay[1911]. Humphreys infers from the chronicles of Gaimar, Adam of Bremen and Roger of Hoveden that Edward spent some time at the court of Iaroslav I Grand Prince of Kiev[1912]. Assuming he was in exile in Hungary from childhood, he may have left for Kiev in 1037 with András Prince of Hungary who fled Hungary after the 1037 disgrace of his father, although this is unlikely for the reasons explained above in relation to his brother Edmund. If this is correct, he would have returned with András in [1046/47] when the latter succeeded as András I King of Hungary after King Péter Orseolo was deposed. Aldred Bishop of Worcester, ambassador of King Edward "the Confessor", "proposed to the emperor to send envoys to Hungary to bring back Edward and have him conducted to England"[1913], according to Florence of Worcester to be groomed to succeed to the English throne[1914]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Edward died "at London soon after his arrival"[1915] before meeting his uncle the king and also states his burial place[1916].
     "m (Kiev[1917] [1040/45]) AGATHA, daughter of --- ([1025/35]-). Agatha is named as the wife of Edward in many sources[1918], but her origin has been the subject of lively debate for years. The early 12th century chronicles are contradictory. The assertion by Orderic Vitalis that she was "daughter of Solomon King of the Magyars"[1919] can be dismissed as impossible chronologically. One group of chroniclers suggest a German origin, saying that she was "the daughter of the brother of the Emperor Henry". This includes John of Worcester ("filia germani imperatoris henrici"[1920], in a passage which Humphreys speculates was written some time between 1120 and 1131 although possibly based on the earlier work of Marianus Scotus), Florence of Worcester ("daughter of the brother of Emperor Henry"[1921]), the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ("the emperor's kinswoman"[1922] and, in relation to her daughter Margaret, "descended from the emperor Henry who had dominion over Rome"[1923]). Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that "Edwardo", son of "regem Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"], married "filiam germani sui Henrici imperatoris…Agatha"[1924]. Matthew of Paris calls Agatha "soror Henrici imperatoris Romani" when recounting the ancestry of Henry II King of England[1925]. A second group of chroniclers propose a Russian origin, suggesting that Agatha belonged to the family of Iaroslav Grand Prince of Kiev. For William of Malmesbury, she was "sister of the [Hungarian] queen", which from a chronological point of view could only refer to Anastasia Iaroslavna, wife of King András I. In a 13th century interpolation in one copy of the Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ (written in [1130]) she was "ex genere et sanguine regum Rugorum"[1926]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Agatham regine Hunorem sororem"[1927], the Hungarian Magyars frequently, though incorrectly, being referred to as "Huns" in many other sources. Lastly, Roger of Wendover records that "Eadwardus" married "reginæ Hungariæ sororem…Agatham"[1928]. In considering the German origin theory, the uterine half-brothers ("germani") of Emperor Heinrich III provide a likely candidate. These half-brothers were Liudolf von Braunschweig, Markgraf in Friesland (son of Gisela of Swabia, mother of Emperor Heinrich III, by her first marriage with Bruno Graf [von Braunschweig]), and Ernst von Babenberg Duke of Swabia and his younger brother Hermann IV Duke of Swabia (sons of Gisela by her second marriage). The latter, the Babenberg brothers, born in [1014/16], were both too young to have been Agatha's father so can be dismissed. Liudolf von Braunschweig was first proposed as Agatha's father in 1933[1929], and has been the preferred candidate for many historians since then[1930]. His birth date is estimated at [1003/05] (see BRUNSWICK) which is consistent with his having been Agatha's father. The marriage taking place in Kiev would not exclude a German origin, as contacts were reported between Kiev and the imperial court in 1040[1931], when Russia was aiming to create a tripartite alliance with England and Germany to weaken Denmark, and also in 1043[1932], when the situation required review following the accession of King Edward "the Confessor" in England. The major drawback to the German origin theory is the total absence of onomastic connections between the Braunschweig family and the descendants of Edward and Agatha, although this is not of course conclusive to prove or disprove the hypothesis. The Russian origin theory has also found considerable academic support[1933]. Edmund must have had contact with the Russian royal family during his period in Kiev, assuming it is correct, as suggested above, that he spent time there during his exile. There are numerous onomastic connections between the the extended family of Grand Prince Iaroslav and the descendants of Edward and Agatha. For example, the names of Edward and Agatha's own daughters, Margaret and Christina, were both used in the Swedish royal family, to which Grand Prince Iaroslav's wife belonged. In the next generation, among Queen Margaret's own children, the name David is one which seems only to have been used in the Kiev ruling family among all contemporary European royal dynasties. The major problem with the Russian origin theory is the complete failure to explain the source references to Agatha's family relationship with the emperor, which it is unwise to dismiss as completely meaningless. It is of course possible that neither of these theories is correct, and that Agatha belonged to a minor German, Russian or Hungarian noble family the importance of whose family connections were exaggerated in the sources. Edward's relationship to the kings of England may, at the time of his marriage, have seemed remote and unimportant in eastern Europe, especially as England was ruled by Danish kings whose position must then have seemed secure. He may not have provided a sufficiently attractive marriage prospect for a prominent European princess. In conclusion, therefore, there is no satisfactory way of deciding between each of the competing theories concerning Agatha's origin and it appears best to classify it as "unknown". It is unlikely that the mystery of Agatha's origin will ever be solved to the satisfaction of all. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, after the Norman conquest, Agatha left England with her children in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1934]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1935]. According to Weir, in old age, possibly after the death of her daughter Queen Margaret, she became a nun at Newcastle-upon-Tyne[1936], but the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified."
Med Lands cites:
[1906] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057.
[1907] Orderic Vitalis I, p. 165.
[1908] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 133.
[1909] Adami Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificium ex Recensione Lappenbergii, MGH SS II, p. 51.
[1910] Geoffrey Gaimar, lines 4516-17, 4563-4590, pp. 154, 156-7.
[1911] Ronay (1989).
[1912] Humphreys, W. 'Agatha, Mother of St. Margaret: The Slavic versus Salian solutions - a critical overview', Foundations: Newsletter of the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Vol 1, No 1 (Jan 2003), p. 31, available at (30 Jul 2003), p. 333, which also cites Fest, S. (1938) The Sons of Eadmund Ironside (Budapest), the last noting the opinion of Karácsonyi in 1928.
[1913] Florence of Worcester, 1054, p. 156.
[1914] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[1915] Florence of Worcester, 1057, p. 159.
[1916] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057, and E, 1057, the latter mentioning his burial place.
[1917] Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ, written [1130], quoted in Ronay (1989), pp. 116 and 197 footnote 17.
[1918] Including MP, Vol. II, p. 22.
[1919] Orderic Vitalis, Vol. IV, Book VIII, p. 273.
[1920] Darlington, Reginald R. & McGurk, Patrick editors, trans. Jennifer Bray and Patrick McGurk (1995) The Chronicle of John of Worcester, Vol II: The Annals from 450 to 1066 (Oxford: Clarendon Press), 1017, cited in Humphreys (2003), p. 34.
[1921] Florence of Worcester, 1017, p. 133.
[1922] "Caseres maga", Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1057.
[1923] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[1924] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 733D and 734B.
[1925] MP, Vol. II, 1155, p. 209.
[1926] Leges Anglo-Saxonicæ, quoted in Ronay (1989), p. 117.
[1927] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1100, MGH SS XXIII, p. 814.
[1928] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 462.
[1929] Herzog, Joszef (1933), Skóciai Szent Margit származásának kérdése [The problem of St Margaret of Scotland's Scottish origins].
[1930] Including De Vajay, S. (1962) 'Agatha, Mother of Saint Margaret Queen of Scotland' Duquesne Review: Journal of Social Sciences, 7: 71-80, and Faris, David & Richardson, Douglas (1998) 'The Parents of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile' New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 152: 224-235.
[1931] Saxo Grammaticus, 1040, MGH SS VI, p. 684.
[1932] Annales Altahenses Maiores, MGH XX, p. 798.
[1933] Including Jetté, R. (1996) 'Is the Mystery of the Origin of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile, finally solved?', New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 150: 417-32, and Ingham, N. W. (1998) 'Has a missing daughter of Iaroslav Mudriy been found?', Russian History 23 (3):231-70.
[1934] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[1935] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 2.12


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 191.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. The Worcester Manuscript in The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, London, 1997, Swanton, Michael editor.
4. The Scottish Genealogist, Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society. Jun 2009 70 and onwards - John Ravilious.10


; Per Genealogy.EU: "Edward "the Exile", styled Atheling and adopted as King Edward the Confessor's heir, *1016, +London 1057, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral; m. in Kiev Agatha of Kiev (+before 1093)."1
; NB: There are various theories about the parents of the Agatha who m. Edward Aetheling and other about who the Polish wife of Imre of Hungary were.
     Guido & Ravilious [2012:84-87] have a long discussion concerning the theory that Imre had a Polish wife and the possibility that this wife might have been an Agatha, dau. of Mieszko II. They propose that the same dau. of Mieszko that m. Edward Aetheling also m. Imre.
     Med Lands (Ref #1) shows and unnamed dau. of Mieszko marrying Imre. As for Edward, Med Lands (Ref #2) only shows that he m. a wife named Agatha, and then presents a synopsis of the various theories concerning her parentage.(but not the Polish one reviewed by Guido and Ravilious, op. cit.) Med Lands (Ref #3) discusses the possibility that Imre might have m. a dau. of Mieszko II, without naming her and in reviewing several competing theories for her origin.
Conclusion: For the present, I have created a second Agatha "(2?)" as wife of Imre and sister to Agatha 1, wife of Exward GA Vaut.13,14,15,16,17,18

Family

Agatha (?) of Poland b. c 1014, d. c 1070
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020117&tree=LEO
  6. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  7. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-21, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agatha of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020120&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  11. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm.
  13. [S4750] Michael Anne Guido and John P. Ravilious, "From Theophanu to St. Margaret of Scotland: A study of Agatha's ancestry", Foundations IV:81-121 (Vol. IV, 2012): pp. 84-87, 116. Hereinafter cited as "From Theophanu to St. Margaret."
  14. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 12 May 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  15. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/agath000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #1: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/POLAND.htm#dauMieszkoMImreHungary
  17. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #2: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm.
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Ref #3: https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HUNGARY.htm#Imredied1031
  19. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Margaretdied1093.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020121&tree=LEO

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #4237, b. 993, d. 30 November 1016
FatherAethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless1,4,5,6,7,8 b. c 968, d. 23 Apr 1016
MotherElgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?)1,4,5,6,8,9 b. bt 963 - 970, d. Feb 1002
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England was born in 993; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2 page) says b. ca 988/90; Genealogics says b. 993; Med Lands says b. 990.1,10,5,6 He married Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England, daughter of Aelfthryth (?), in August 1015 at Malmsbury, Wiltshire, England;
Her 2nd husband. Med Lands says m. Jun/Aug 1015.11,4,12,5,6
Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England died on 30 November 1016 at London, City of London, Greater London, England; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2 page) says "possibly murdered."10,13,11,1,5,6
Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England was buried after 30 November 1016 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, England
     DEATH     30 Nov 1016, England
     English Monarch. Son of Æthelred II 'The Unready' and his first wife, Elfgifu. He married Ealdgyth around August 1015. In April 1016, Edmund led the defense of the city of London against the invading Canute, and was proclaimed king by the city inhabitants. He was crowned King of England that same month at St. Paul's Cathedral. Unfortunately, the Witan meeting in council chose Canute as King, possibly fearing the rule of the son of the inept Æthelred. After a series of inconclusive battles for the throne, in which Edmund performed brilliantly and earned the nickname "Ironside", he defeated the Danish forces at Oxford, but was then routed by Canute's forces at Ashingdon. The two monarchs met on an island in the Severn near Deerhurst and it was agreed that Edmund should rule Wessex and Canute would rule the land North of the Thames, including London splitting the kingdom. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm. On November 30, 1016, Edmund was murdered at Oxford by Edric, Earl of Mercia and the whole kingdom passed to Canute. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Ethelred the Unready 968–1016
          Aelfgifu Of York 970–1002
     Spouse
          Ealdgyth Ætheling 992 – unknown (m. 1015)
     Siblings
          Aelfgifu Princess of England of Wessex Of Northumbria
          Aethelstan Aetheling unknown–1014
     Half Siblings
          Edward the Confessor 1002–1066
          Goda Of England 1004–1047
          Alfred Atheling 1012–1037
     Children
          Edward Aetheling 1016–1057
     BURIAL     Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Iola
     Added: 3 Sep 2005
     Find a Grave Memorial 11670714.1,11,6,14
     ; This is the same person as ”Edmund Ironside” at Wikipedia.15 GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. The Scottish Genealogist, Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society. Jun 2009 70 onwards.5


; Per Genealogics:
     “Edmund was the son of Aethelred II 'the Unready', king of England, and Elfgiva. He was chosen king by the Londoners on his father's death in April 1016, while Knud 'den Store' (also known as Canute) was elected at Southampton by the Witan (the council of the Anglo-Saxon kings in and of England). Edmund hastily levied an army in the west, defeated Knud twice, raised the siege of London, and again routed the Danes. Known as 'Ironside' for his courage, he devoted his short reign to defending his inheritance against the ravages of Knud.
     “In this he was severely hampered by the behaviour of one of his father's favourites, Edric Streona (Grasper). On one battlefield Edric mounted a hill and held up a severed head, saying it was Edmund's. At this the king removed his helmet to show himself alive, then violently hurled his spear at Edric. Glancing off Edric's shield, the spear pierced two soldiers standing beside him.
     “Defeat at the battle of Ashington forced Edmund to make terms with Knud. By the treaty of 1016 made with Knud at Olney near Deerhurst in Gloucestershire, Edmund accepted the partition of England, Knud retaining Mercia and Northumbria, Edmund all the south, the survivor of the two to succeed to the whole. In the treaty was a provision requiring the survivor to act as guardian of the sons of the other. King Edmund died probably murdered on 30 November 1016 within days of finalisation of the treaty, and England was united under Knud.”.5

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADMUND, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælflæd ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset[1875]). Florence of Worcester’s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred’s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1876]. Roger of Wendover records the birth in 981 of "rex Ethelredus…filium…Eadmundum"[1877], but this date is probably inaccurate if it is correct (as shown above) that Eadmund was his father’s third son, given King Æthelred’s birth in [966]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1878]. His name was listed after his brother Ecgberht, before the latter's disappearance from the records in 1005, consistent with Edmund being the third son. He subscribed his father's charter dated 1002 which granted land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing third among the brothers[1879], and "Eadmundus clito" subscribed his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, also signing third[1880]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1881]. After the murder of the brothers Sigeferth and Morcar, leading thegns in northern England, Edmund abducted and married Sigeferth's widow against his father's wishes. In Sep 1015, he proceeded north to retake the properties of his wife's first husband which had been confiscated by the king[1882]. In early 1016, Edmund devastated northwest Mercia in alliance with Uhtred Earl of Northumbria, but returned to London to rejoin his father shortly before he died. He was immediately proclaimed king on his father's death in 1016 by an assembly of northern notables and burghers of London[1883], succeeding as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England, crowned at Old St Paul's Cathedral in Apr 1016. The Witan had offered the throne to Knud of Denmark, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[1884]. King Edmund reconquered Wessex from Danish forces, and relieved London from the siege imposed by a Danish fleet. The Danes turned their attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford only to betray him again at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[1885]. At Alney, near Deerhurst, Edmund agreed a compromise division of the country with Canute, Edmund taking Wessex and Canute the north, but King Edmund died before this could be implemented. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Andrew's day 1016 of King Edmund and his burial at Glastonbury[1886]. According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[1887].
     "m (Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Jun/Aug] 1015) as her second husband, ÆLDGYTH, widow of SIGEFERTH, daughter of --- . The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "prince Edmund…abducted [Siferth's widow] against the king's will and made her his wife" but does not name her[1888]. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[1889]. According to Ronay, she was the daughter of Olof "Skotkonung" King of Sweden and his concubine Edla of Vindland, but the author cites no primary source to support this suggestion[1890]. If the assertion is correct, it is surprising that Ældgyth is not mentioned with the Swedish king's other children in the Saga of Olaf Haraldson[1891]. In addition, there would be no explanation for Ældgyth's first marriage to an obscure Northumbrian nobleman, especially as King Olof's two known daughters made high-profile marriages with the Grand Prince of Kiev and the king of Norway. Simeon of Durham records that, after Ældgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, Ældgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King Æthelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England[1892]. She was abducted and married, against the king's wishes, by her second husband who proceeded to take possession of her first husband's properties. No mention has been found of Queen Ældgyth after the death of her second husband."
Med Lands cites:
[1875] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 14, p. 16.
[1876] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275.
[1877] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 422.
[1878] S 876, S 878, S 891, S 893, S 897, S 898, S 899, S 900, S 901, S 904, S 906, S 910, S 912, S 915, S 918, S 920, S 921, S 922, S 923, S 924, S 925, S 927, S 929, S 931, S 933 and S 934.
[1879] MP, Vol. VI, p. 18-20.
[1880] MP, Vol. VI, Additamenta, pp. 21-4.
[1881] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6.
[1882] Florence of Worcester, 1015, p. 125.
[1883] Florence of Worcester, 1016, pp. 126-7.
[1884] Ronay (1989), p. 10.
[1885] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, E and F, 1016.
[1886] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, E and F, 1016.
[1887] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 14, p. 15.
[1888] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1015.
[1889] Simeon of Durham, p. 521.
[1890] Ronay (1989), p. 53.
[1891] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, (24 Jan 2003).
[1892] Simeon of Durham, p. 521.6


; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “A2. [1m.] Edmund II "Ironside", King of England (1016) -cr Old St.Paul’s Cathedral IV.1016, *ca 988/90, +possibly murdered at Oxford 30.11.1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; m.Malmesbury, Wiltshire VIII.1015 Edith N (+Hungary after 1017); issue may have been twins”.16 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 485-486] EDMUND II IRONSIDE King of the English, 23 April-30 November 1016. Crowned: Old St Paul's Cathedral, April 1016. Born: c989. Died (murdered?): London, 30 November 1016, aged 27. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: August(?) 1015, Edith, widow of Sigeferth, thane of East Anglia: 2 children. Edmund was the second son of ATHELRED (II) and became the heir to the throne after the eldest son, Athelstan, fell in battle some time in 1014. Edmund had already done his share of fighting, and had proved himself valiant, but once the heir he became even more determined. Angered at the weakness of his father, who had already been expelled from England by SWEIN in 1013, only to return a few months later promising to rule strongly and wisely, Edmund carved out his own plan to recover England. There was some respite during 1014 when CANUTE left England to gain the throne of Denmark, though Athelred used that time to exact retribution from those he believed had betrayed him. One of these was Sigeferth, a thane of East Anglia, who had been amongst the first to submit to Swein when he landed at Gainsborough in August 1013. Sigeferth was executed and his widow, Edith, imprisoned at Malmesbury. Edmund rescued Edith and married her. This action gained the support of the Danelaw of Mercia and the north, but divided Britain, with Athelred retaining support in the south. When Canute returned to England in September 1015 only Edmund's army was prepared. Athelred's men would not fight unless led by the king but he was seldom available (he was increasingly ill) and his own ealdormen were always on the verge of desertion. Athelred died in April 1016 and Edmund was promptly declared king. There was no time for celebrations. Edmund and Canute's armies clashed at five major battles during the year. The outcome was rarely decisive, both sides claiming victory. Edmund succeeded in holding London against Canute's siege and he probably would have defeated the Danes at Sherstone had not one of his ealdormen (the ever-traitorous Eadric of Shropshire) tricked the Saxons into believing Edmund was dead. Canute defeated Edmund at Ashingdon, in Essex, on 18 October, but by this time both sides were battle-weary. One further engagement was fought near Deerhurst in Gloucester, at which point both parties agreed to negotiate. At the Treaty of Olney, signed at the end of October, Canute was granted Mercia and Northumbria, and Edmund remained in Wessex. Edmund returned to London. He had been seriously wounded at Ashingdon, and his continued fighting had not improved his health. Nevertheless his death, just one month later, still shocked the Saxon nation. There was talk of murder and the weight of evidence supports this. Later rumours of a particularly nasty disembowelling whilst on the privy have never been disproved. With his death Canute soon convinced the English to accept him as king. Edmund's sons were despatched from England, and other young Saxon princes were transferred to places of safety. Only one of them, Edmund's son Edward (the father of EDGAR ATHELING), would return. between 23 April 1016 and 30 November 1016.17,13,11

Family

Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England d. a 1017
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  4. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  10. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-20, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  11. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 485-486. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020117&tree=LEO
  13. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 9 July 2020), memorial page for “Ironside” Edmund II (unknown–30 Nov 1016), Find a Grave Memorial no. 11670714, citing Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/11670714. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_Ironside. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  17. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-19.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020123&tree=LEO

Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England1,2,3,4

F, #4238, d. after 1017
FatherAelfthryth (?)5,3
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited10 Jul 2020
     Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England married Sigeferth (?) thane of East Anglia, son of Arngrim (?);
Her 1st husband.2,6,7,8 Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England married Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England, son of Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless and Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?), in August 1015 at Malmsbury, Wiltshire, England;
Her 2nd husband. Med Lands says m. Jun/Aug 1015.2,6,3,9,10
Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England died after 1017 at Hungary.4
Ealdgyth (Edith) (?) Queen of England was buried after 1017 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     992
     DEATH     unknown
[Text copied from Wikipedia]
     Family Members
     Spouse
          Edmund II unknown–1016 (m. 1015)
     BURIAL     Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England
     Created by: Our Family History
     Added: 11 May 2018
     Find a Grave Memorial 189653769.11
     ; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “A2. [1m.] Edmund II "Ironside", King of England (1016) -cr Old St.Paul’s Cathedral IV.1016, *ca 988/90, +possibly murdered at Oxford 30.11.1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; m.Malmesbury, Wiltshire VIII.1015 Edith N (+Hungary after 1017); issue may have been twins”.12

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADMUND, son of ÆTHELRED II King of England & his first wife Ælflæd ([990]-30 Nov 1016, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset[1875]). Florence of Worcester’s genealogies name "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred’s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1876]. Roger of Wendover records the birth in 981 of "rex Ethelredus…filium…Eadmundum"[1877], but this date is probably inaccurate if it is correct (as shown above) that Eadmund was his father’s third son, given King Æthelred’s birth in [966]. "Eadmundus filius regis/clito/ætheling" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II dated between 993 and 1015, the last dated 1015 being signed "Eadmund regie indolis soboles"[1878]. His name was listed after his brother Ecgberht, before the latter's disappearance from the records in 1005, consistent with Edmund being the third son. He subscribed his father's charter dated 1002 which granted land at Codicote, Hertfordshire to Ælthelm, signing third among the brothers[1879], and "Eadmundus clito" subscribed his father's 1006 charter making grants to St Alban's, also signing third[1880]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made bequests to "…my brother Eadmund, my brother Eadwig…"[1881]. After the murder of the brothers Sigeferth and Morcar, leading thegns in northern England, Edmund abducted and married Sigeferth's widow against his father's wishes. In Sep 1015, he proceeded north to retake the properties of his wife's first husband which had been confiscated by the king[1882]. In early 1016, Edmund devastated northwest Mercia in alliance with Uhtred Earl of Northumbria, but returned to London to rejoin his father shortly before he died. He was immediately proclaimed king on his father's death in 1016 by an assembly of northern notables and burghers of London[1883], succeeding as EDMUND "Ironside" King of England, crowned at Old St Paul's Cathedral in Apr 1016. The Witan had offered the throne to Knud of Denmark, to whom a group of nobles and church dignitaries from southern England swore allegiance at Southampton[1884]. King Edmund reconquered Wessex from Danish forces, and relieved London from the siege imposed by a Danish fleet. The Danes turned their attention to Mercia, Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" defecting back to King Edmund's forces at Aylesford only to betray him again at Ashingdon in Essex where Danish forces finally defeated King Edmund in Oct 1016[1885]. At Alney, near Deerhurst, Edmund agreed a compromise division of the country with Canute, Edmund taking Wessex and Canute the north, but King Edmund died before this could be implemented. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Andrew's day 1016 of King Edmund and his burial at Glastonbury[1886]. According to Henry of Huntingdon, King Edmund was murdered by the son of Eadric Streona[1887].
     "m (Malmesbury, Wiltshire [Jun/Aug] 1015) as her second husband, ÆLDGYTH, widow of SIGEFERTH, daughter of --- . The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that "prince Edmund…abducted [Siferth's widow] against the king's will and made her his wife" but does not name her[1888]. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[1889]. According to Ronay, she was the daughter of Olof "Skotkonung" King of Sweden and his concubine Edla of Vindland, but the author cites no primary source to support this suggestion[1890]. If the assertion is correct, it is surprising that Ældgyth is not mentioned with the Swedish king's other children in the Saga of Olaf Haraldson[1891]. In addition, there would be no explanation for Ældgyth's first marriage to an obscure Northumbrian nobleman, especially as King Olof's two known daughters made high-profile marriages with the Grand Prince of Kiev and the king of Norway. Simeon of Durham records that, after Ældgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, Ældgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King Æthelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England[1892]. She was abducted and married, against the king's wishes, by her second husband who proceeded to take possession of her first husband's properties. No mention has been found of Queen Ældgyth after the death of her second husband."
Med Lands cites:
[1875] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 14, p. 16.
[1876] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275.
[1877] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 422.
[1878] S 876, S 878, S 891, S 893, S 897, S 898, S 899, S 900, S 901, S 904, S 906, S 910, S 912, S 915, S 918, S 920, S 921, S 922, S 923, S 924, S 925, S 927, S 929, S 931, S 933 and S 934.
[1879] MP, Vol. VI, p. 18-20.
[1880] MP, Vol. VI, Additamenta, pp. 21-4.
[1881] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6.
[1882] Florence of Worcester, 1015, p. 125.
[1883] Florence of Worcester, 1016, pp. 126-7.
[1884] Ronay (1989), p. 10.
[1885] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, E and F, 1016.
[1886] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, E and F, 1016.
[1887] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 14, p. 15.
[1888] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1015.
[1889] Simeon of Durham, p. 521.
[1890] Ronay (1989), p. 53.
[1891] Laing, S. (trans.) (1907) Snorri Sturluson, Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings Snorre (Norroena Society, London), Saga of Olaf Haraldson Part III, 89, available at Online Medieval and Classical Library Release 15b, (24 Jan 2003).
[1892] Simeon of Durham, p. 521.10


Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.
2. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle London, 1997. , Michael Swanton, editor, Reference: trees.3


; This is the same person as ”Ealdgyth (wife of Edmund Ironside)” at Wikipedia.13 GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

; WFT Says: "Sister of Ealdorman Eadric Streona of Mercia."14,15

; Per Med Lands:
     "SIGEFERTH (-murdered Oxford summer 1015). Simeon of Durham records that "Sigeferth and Morkar the sons of Earngrim" were killed in 1015 on the orders of "duke Edric Streona" and that the king took possession of their estates[213]. Ætheling Æthelstan, under his will dated [1014], made a bequest to "Sigeferth, an estate at Hockliffe"[214]. With his brother, he was one of the leading thegns of the northern Danelaw. He was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia[215].
     "m as her first husband, ÆLDGYTH, daughter of ---. After her husband was killed, she was arrested, but abducted against the wishes of King Æthelred II by his son Edmund, later Edmund "Ironsides" King of England, whom she married as her second husband. Simeon of Durham records that Edmund married "Algitha widow of Sigeferth" in 1015[216]."
Med Lands cites:
[213] Simeon of Durham, p. 520.
[214] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6.
[215] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1015.
[216] Simeon of Durham, p. 521.8

Family 2

Edmund II "Ironside" (?) King of England b. 993, d. 30 Nov 1016
Children

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 485-486. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealdgyth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020117&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aelfthryth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00312627&tree=LEO
  6. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigeferth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020118&tree=LEO
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#SigeferthNorthumbriadied1015. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B.
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 9 July 2020), memorial page for Ealdgyth Ætheling (992–unknown), Find a Grave Memorial no. 189653769, citing Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England; Maintained by Our Family History (contributor 47719401), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/189653769. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ealdgyth_(wife_of_Edmund_Ironside). Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  14. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  15. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgigu: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00027597&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020123&tree=LEO

Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless1,2

M, #4239, b. circa 968, d. 23 April 1016
FatherEdgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England3,4,5,6 b. c 943, d. 8 Jul 975
MotherElfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England1,4,7,5,6 b. c 945, d. 17 Nov 1000
ReferenceGAV27
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless was born circa 968; Genealogics says b. ca 968; Med Lands says b. 966.8,9,1,5,6 He married Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?), daughter of Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria, in 985;
His 1st wife. Med Lands says m. 980/84.10,1,11,5,6,12 Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless married Emma (?) of Normandy Queen of England, daughter of Richard I "The Fearless" (?) 3rd Duke of Normandy and Gunnora (Gunnor, Gonnor) de Crepon Duchess of Normandy, on 5 April 1002 at Winchester Cathedral, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England;
Her 1st husband; his 2nd or 3rd wife.13,10,9,1,14,11,15,5,6
Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless died on 23 April 1016 at London, City of London, Greater London, England.8,9,1,5,6
Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless was buried on 23 April 1016 at Old St. Paul's Cathedral, London, City of London, Greater London, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     968
     DEATH     23 Apr 1016 (aged 47–48)
     English Monarch. He reigned as King of the English from 978 to 1013 and from 1014 to 1016. The son of King Edgar, he succeeded his half-brother, Edward the Marytr, to the throne at the age of 10 years. During his long reign, Viking invaders routinely plundered the country, and he was forced to pay them off in hope of peace. In 1002, in retaliation, he ordered the massacre of all Danes in England. The King of the Danes, Sweyn I (or Sweyn Forkbeard), invaded England, and Ethelred was forced to flee to Normandy in 1013. He returned in 1014, after Sweyn's death. He died 2 years later in London. He was succeeded by his son, Edmund II Ironside. Bio by: Jennifer
     Family Members
     Parents
          Edgar the Peaceful 943–975
          Elfrida of Devon unknown–1000
     Spouses
          Aelfgifu Of York 970–1002
          Emma of Normandy 988–1052
     Siblings
          Edith 961–984
          Edward the Martyr 962–979
     Children
          Aelfgifu Princess of England of Wessex Of Northumbria
          Edmund II unknown–1016
          Aethelstan Aetheling unknown–1014
          Edward the Confessor 1002–1066
          Goda Of England 1004–1047
          Alfred Atheling 1012–1037
     BURIAL     Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, City of London, Greater London, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Jennifer
     Added: 30 Oct 2006
     Find a Grave Memorial 16391067.9,1,6,16
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Aethelred was the son of Edgar 'the Peaceful', king of England, and Elfrida. According to St. Dunstan his life began with an ill omen, for at his baptism he made water in the font. From this Dunstan predicted the slaughter of the English people that would take place in Aethelred's time. With his first wife Elgiva, daughter of Thored, ealdorman of Northumbria, he had at least eleven children of whom three would have progeny, including his son and successor Edmund Ironside.
     "Aethelred became king after the murder of his elder brother Edward. Though not as capable as his predecessors, he reigned longer than any of them. However his kingdom was eventually dismembered by his son Edmund Ironside and Knud 'den Store'
     "His derogatory nickname, coined in the twelfth century, is merely a pun on his name, meaning 'noble counsel'. The early years (973-983) were dominated by his mother. His personal rule over the period from 983 until 993 was oppressive. Unfortunately the Viking assaults starting in 988 were of a ferocity unmatched since Alfred's day, and Aethelred could do little but negotiate temporary respites and massive tributes, which encouraged further attacks.
     "He tried to combat the Vikings by diplomacy, notably by taking as his second wife Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard I 'the Fearless', duke of Normandy, and raising a fleet and large armies. In 1000 he led an expedition to Strathclyde to disrupt the Viking settlements around the Irish Sea.
     "On 13 November 1002, St. Brice's Day, he ordered all the Danish men who were in England to be slain, because he had been informed that they would treacherously kill him and all his councillors, and take possession of the kingdom. Aethelred's reward for this was the wrath of King Svend II 'Forkbeard' of Denmark whose sister had been a victim of the massacre.
     "King Svend and his son Knud 'den Store' began conquering territory. Their unexpected attacks in southern and midland England destroyed the morale of king and country, and so disillusioned the nobility that Aethelred could no longer trust them. When Svend was chosen king in 1013 Aethelred fled; after Svend had died Aethelred returned in 1014, promising better rule.
     "However, when Aethelred failed to reassert control, his son Edmund made himself independent ruler in the Danelaw, which in turn was taken by Knud. This assisted the collapse of the kingdom of Aethelred, who died in 1016. He was succeeded by Edmund."5 GAV-27 EDV-26 GKJ-28.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, Oxford, 1988., John Cannon, Ralph Griffiths, Reference: 74 biography.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190.5


; This is the same person as:
”Æthelred the Unready” at Wikipedia and as
”Æthelred le Malavisé” at Wikipédia (FR).


This also is the same person as ”Æthelred II [Ethelred; known as Ethelred the Unready]” at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.17,18,19



; Per Genealogy.EU: "Ethelred II "the Unraed or Redeless", meaning without counsel, King of England (978-1013)+(1014-16), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 4.4.978, *ca 966/8, +London 23.4.1016, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral, London;
     1m: ca 980/5 Elgiva (*ca 963, +Winchester II.1002, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of either Ealdorman Ethelbert or Thored, Ealdorman of York;
     2m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Emma of Normandy (*ca 985/7 +14.3.1052.)2"

; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELRED, son of EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth of Devon ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral). Simeon of Durham names "Eadmuind and Egelræd" as the sons of King Eadgar and his wife "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire…"[1780]. Roger of Hoveden gives his parentage[1781]. When his father died, a large number of nobles promoted the election of Æthelred to succeed instead of his older half-brother, maybe because the latter was considered unsuitable due to his outbursts of rage or because of the inferior status of his mother. He succeeded after the murder of his half-brother in 978 as ÆTHELRED II "the Unready/Unræd/Redeles" King of England, crowned 4 Apr or 4 May 978 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Danish attacks on England recommenced in 980, with raids on Hampshire, Thanet and Cheshire. Raids on Devon and Cornwall followed in 981, and on Dorset in 982. A further wave of attacks started in 988 in Devon. As part of his plan to control the Danes, King Æthelred agreed a non-aggression pact with Richard I "Sans Peur" Comte de Normandie on 1 Mar 991, designed apparently to dissuade either party from sheltering Viking marauders[1782]. After a third wave of attacks in 991, King Æthelred signed a treaty with Olaf Tryggveson (who succeeded in [995] as Olav I King of Norway) under which 22,000 pounds of gold and silver was paid in return for a promise of help in thwarting future attacks. The treaty presumably never came into full effect, despite payment of the money, as this was only the first of a long series of "Danegeld" payments funded by heavy taxation which ultimately led to the virtual ruin of King Æthelred's government. The attack of 994, in which for the first time Svend King of Denmark took part, resulted in some English support to declare Svend king from those who despaired of King Æthelred's government[1783]. The raids of 997/999 on Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, South Wales, Dorset and Kent, were followed in 1000 by the Danish army moving to Normandy to await the following summer. The king's second marriage in 1002 was presumably part of his continuing efforts to prevent the Normans from allowing the Danes to use their ports from which to attack England. King Æthelred ordered the massacre of Danes in England 13 Nov 1002[1784], which included the death of Gunhild sister of King Svend, although this only resulted in intensified attacks. In a desperate late attempt to strengthen the country's defences, King Æthelred ordered the construction of a fleet of new warships, completed in 1009. Nearly one third of the fleet was lost as a result of the rebellion of Wulfnoth, father of Godwin Earl of Wessex, and the attempt by Brihtric, brother of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor", to capture him[1785]. A full-scale Danish invasion came in 1013 and by the end of the year Svend King of Denmark had become de facto king of England. King Æthelred fled to Normandy after Christmas 1013[1786], but after Svend's death in Feb 1014 he was invited back, on condition he improved his rule[1787]. By end-Apr 1014, Æthelred counter-attacked the Danes in Lindsey, after which the Danish fleet, under King Svend's son Knud, withdrew to Denmark. In August 1015, Knud of Denmark invaded England again. During the latter part of King Æthelred's reign further trouble was caused by the treachery of his son-in-law Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor", appointed Ealdorman of Mercia in 1007. He acquired a position of considerable influence over the king, only to defect to Knud after this last invasion. The Danes controlled Wessex by the end of 1015, and Northumbria in early 1016, turning their attention to London and the south-east after King Æthelred died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St George's day 1016 of King Æthelred[1788]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “IX Kal Mai” of “Ethelredus rex Angliæ, qui dedit Brochtune”[1789].
     "[m] firstly ([980/85]) [ÆLFGIVA], daughter of ---. The information about the parentage of the first "wife" of King Æthelred is contradictory. According to Florence of Worcester’s genealogies, she was Ælfgiva, daughter of Ealdorman "Ægelberht", as he names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred’s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1790]. (It should be noted in passing that this is the only example of the root "Ægel-" being found in an Anglo-Saxon name; it is therefore possible that "Ægelberhti" represents a transcription error, maybe for "Æthelberhti".) On the other hand, Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that she was ---, daughter of Thored Ealdorman of York, naming "filia Torethi…comitis" as the mother of "Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"][1791]. The Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, written in [1245], must have used Ailred as its source as it states that the first wife of King Æthelred II was the daughter of "Count Torin"[1792]. Roger of Wendover is unspecific, noting that "rex Ethelredus" married "cujusdam ducis filiam" by whom he fathered "filium…Eadmundum", although in a later passage he says that King Eadmund had "matrem quondam ignobilem fœminam"[1793]. No trace of King Æthelred’s first wife has been found in any other contemporary document. In charters dated 996, King Æthelred's mother countersigns "Ælfthryth regina", but there is no mention of the king's wife. This suggests that Ælfgiva (if indeed that was her name) was an "unofficial" wife, having a similar status to Æthelflæd, first "wife" of King Eadgar, King Æthelred’s father. The will of her son ætheling Æthelstan, dated [1014], refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up" but makes no mention of his mother[1794], which suggests that she played little part in his early life. This seems suprising if she was in fact the mother of all King Æthelred's children who were not born to his known wife Emma, as is generally reported in most secondary sources. There must therefore be some doubt whether [Ælfgiva] was the king's only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie.
     "[m] [secondly] [---. No direct information has been found on this supposed second "wife" of King Æthelred. However, as noted above, there must be some doubt whether Ælfgiva, if indeed that was her name, was the king’s only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie. In addition, no information has been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted which identifies the mother of King Æthelred’s children, generally attributed by secondary sources to his first marriage, other than his three sons Eadmund, Eadwig and Æthelstan. It is therefore possible that King Æthelred had more than one "unofficial" wives or concubines who may have been the mother(s) of some or all of his children. It is even possible that the unnamed daughter of Ealdorman Thored (referred to by Ailred of Rievaulx) was not the same person as Ælfgiva (named by Florence of Worcester) and that they were both "married" to King Æthelred, either at the same time or one after the other. If this is correct, the sources are contradictory regarding the identity of the mother of King Eadmund "Ironsides".]
     "m [secondly/thirdly] (betrothed 1000, 1002[1795]) as her first husband, EMMA de Normandie, daughter of RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte de Normandie & his second wife Gunnora --- ([985]-Winchester 14 Mar 1052, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster[1796]). Guillaume de Poitou names “genitrix Emma filia Ricardi primi, genitor Ædelredus rex Anglorum” as parents of “Edwardus ac Alveradus”[1797]. Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Emma married “Edelredo regi Anglorum” by whom she was mother of “rex Edwardum et Alvredum”[1798]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Emma Anglorum regina" as sister of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[1799]. Emma was described by Henry of Huntingdon as "Emma Normanorum gemma"[1800], although it is not known whether this was a particular indication of her beauty or mere hyperbole. She adopted the name "ÆLFGIFU" in England[1801]. "Ælfgifu regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 1002 and 1012, also referred to as "Ælfgifu conlaterana regis"[1802]. Her first husband sent her to her brother's court in Normandy in 1013 after the invasion of Svend King of Denmark[1803]. She was living in Normandy in 1017 when King Æthelred's successor King Canute proposed marriage to her. She married King Canute as her second husband (2 or 31 Jul 1017). Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori”[1804]. Roger of Wendover records the marriage in Jul 1018 of "Cnuto" and "ducem Ricardum…Emmam sororem suam et regis Ethelredi relictam"[1805]. After the death of her second husband, she continued to live at Winchester. After the election of her step-son as regent in early 1036, it was recognised that she would continue to live there to look after the interests of her son Harthacnut (then absent in Denmark), who had nominally succeeded his father as King of England and Denmark. It is likely that she encouraged her sons by her first husband, Edward and Alfred, to join her. After Harold was recognised as King of England in 1037, Queen Emma was expelled from England and took refuge at Bruges[1806]. She commissioned the work later known as the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ from a Flemish convent at Saint-Omer, maybe St Bertin's, designed to promote her son Harthacnut's claim to the English throne. Harthacnut joined her in Bruges in early 1040, and after the death of King Harold, they returned together to England. After the accession of Edward "the Confessor" to the English throne, Emma appears to have supported the rival claim of Magnus King of Norway[1807]. Whatever the truth of this, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Edward did confiscate her property in 1043[1808]. She seems to have spent the last years of her life in retirement in Winchester[1809]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Ælfgifu Emma, the mother of king Edward and of king Harthacnut" in 1052[1810]."
Med Lands cites:
[1780] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1781] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1782] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 102.
[1783] Stenton (2001), p. 378.
[1784] Greenway, D. (ed.) (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford UP) ("Henry of Huntingdon"), II, 2, p. 7.
[1785] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009.
[1786] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[1787] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 10, p. 12.
[1788] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1016.
[1789] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1790] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275.
[1791] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 730B.
[1792] La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, MS Cantab. Ee III 59, from Bishop Moore's Library, 11, pp. 195-218, cited in Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell Press), p. 8.
[1793] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, pp. 422 and 451.
[1794] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6.
[1795] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 1 and 2, pp. 6 and 7.
[1796] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1051.
[1797] Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum a Guillelmo Pictavensi, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Gesta a Guillelmo Pictavensi (Du Chesne, 1619)”), p. 178.
[1798] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247.
[1799] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783.
[1800] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 2, p. 7.
[1801] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, F, 1013 and 1017.
[1802] S 902, S 909, S 910, S 915, S 916, S 918, S 923 and S 926.
[1803] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[1804] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253.
[1805] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 463.
[1806] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1037.
[1807] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6.
[1808] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1043, and E, 1042 [1043].
[1809] Stafford, P. 'Emma: The Powers of the Queen in the Eleventh Century', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 6.
[1810] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1052.6


; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic): “G3. [2m.] Ethelred II "the Unready", King of England (978-1013)+(1014-16) -cr Kingston-upon-Thames 4.4.978, *ca 966/8, +London 23.4.1016, bur Old St.Paul’s Cathedral, London; 1m: ca 980/5 Elgiva (*ca 963, +Winchester II.1002, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of either Ealdorman Ethelbert or Thored, Ealdorman of York; 2m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Emma of Normandy (*ca 985/7 +14.3.1052); for his issue see: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html”.20

; Per Med Lands:
     "EMMA ([985]-Winchester 14 Mar 1052, bur Winchester Cathedral). Guillaume de Poitou names “genitrix Emma filia Ricardi primi, genitor Ædelredus rex Anglorum” as parents of “Edwardus ac Alveradus”[120]. Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Emma married “Edelredo regi Anglorum” by whom she was mother of “rex Edwardum et Alvredum”[121]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Emma Anglorum regina" as sister of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[122]. Emma was described by Henry of Huntingdon as "Emma Normanorum gemma"[123], although it is not known whether this was a particular indication of her beauty or mere hyperbole. She was known as ÆLFGIFU in England[124]. Her first husband sent her to her brother's court in Normandy in 1013 after the invasion of Svend King of Denmark[125]. She was living in Normandy in 1017 when King Æthelred's successor King Canute proposed marriage to her. Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori”[126]. Roger of Wendover records the marriage in Jul 1018 of "Cnuto" and "ducem Ricardum…Emmam sororem suam et regis Ethelredi relictam"[127]. After the death of her second husband, she continued to live at Winchester. After the election of her step-son as regent in early 1036, it was recognised that she would continue to live there to look after the interests of her son Harthacnut who had nominally succeeded his father as King of England and Denmark but was still absent in Denmark. It is likely that she encouraged her sons by her first husband, Edward and Alfred, to join her, Alfred being captured and murdered during the visit. After Harold was recognised as king of England in 1037, Queen Emma was expelled and took refuge at Bruges[128]. She commissioned the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ from a Flemish convent at Saint-Omer, maybe St Bertin's, designed to promote her son Harthacnut's claim to the English throne. Harthacnut joined her in Bruges in early 1040, and after the death of King Harold, they returned together to England. After the accession of Edward "the Confessor", her son by her first husband, Emma appears to have supported the rival claim of Magnus King of Norway[129]. Whatever the truth of this, King Edward did confiscate her property in 1043 according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle[130]. She seems to have spent the last years of her life in retirement in Winchester[131]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Ælfgifu Emma, the mother of king Edward and of king Harthacnut" in 1052[132].
     "m firstly (betrothed 1000, 1002[133]) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELRED II King of England, son of EDGAR "the Peacable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral).
     "m secondly (2 or 31 Jul 1017) CANUTE King of England, son of SVEND I "Tveskæg/Forkbeard" King of Denmark & his first wife Šwi?tos?awa [Gunhild] of Poland ([995]-Shaftesbury, Dorset 12 Nov 1035, bur Winchester Cathedral). King of Denmark 1018, King of Norway 1028."
Med Lands cites:
[120] Gesta a Guillelmo Pictavensi (Du Chesne, 1619), p. 178.
[121] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247.
[122] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783.
[123] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 2, p. 7.
[124] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, F, 1013 and 1017.
[125] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[126] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253.
[127] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 463.
[128] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1037.
[129] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6.
[130] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1043, and E, 1042 [1043].
[131] Stafford 'Emma' (1997), p. 6.
[132] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1052.
[133] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 1 and 2, pp. 6 and 7.15


; Per Genealogy.EU (Normandy): “D6. [1m.] Emma, *ca 982, +Winchester 14.3.1052/21.2.1052, bur there; 1m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Ethelred II of England (*968 +23.4.1016); 2m: 2.7.1017 Knud II of Denmark (*995 +12.11.1035)”.21

; Per Racines et Histoire (Normandie): “2) Emma de Normandie ° ~982/87 + entre 21/02 et 14/03/1052/53 (Winchester)
ép. 1) 05/04/1002 (Winchester) Ethelred II d’Angleterre ° 968 + 23/04/1016 roi d’Angleterre (fils du roi Edgar «Le Pacifique» et d’Elfreda de Devon ; veuf d’Elgiva ; ép. 3) Goda)
ép. 2) 02/07/1017 Knut II «Le Grand» de Danemark ° 995 + 12/11/1035 roi d’Angleterre, Danemark et Norvège (fils de Swend 1er et de Swietoslawa/Gunhild de Pologne)”.22 He was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 481-484] ATHELRED (II) THE UNREADY King of the English, 18 March 978-December 1013, 3 February 1014-23 April 1016. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 4 April 978. Born: c968. Died: London, 23 April 1016, aged 48. Buried: Old St Paul's Cathedral, London. Married: (1) c985, Elgiva (c963-1002), dau. Thored, ealdorman of Northumbria: 13 children; (2) 5 April 1002, Emma (c985-1052), dau. Richard, duke of Normandy: 3 children. Athelred is remembered colloquially and half-jokingly today as the Unready, although the nickname was really a clever pun on his name, athel "noble" and ræd "counsel", meaning "noble counsel". Throughout his reign Athelred was ill-advised and if he made his own decision, he was as likely to change his mind, hence the nickname, ræd-less, or lacking counsel. He was a better administrator than history has given credit, but he was a hopeless king and leader.
He was the son of EDGAR and his second (or third) wife Elfrida. At the time of Edgar's death there were many who supported Athelred as the next king, but the witan elected his elder half-brother EDWARD. When Edward was murdered three years later, Athelred's supporters, who included his mother and the Mercian ealdorman Alfhere, ensured that Athelred came to the throne. He was still probably under ten, and Elfrida and Alfhere dominated the government of England. Alfhere had been the main opponent to Edward and led the anti-monastic movement which flared up following the death of Edgar. Alfhere believed that the monasteries were becoming too rich and powerful too quickly and that they could control the shires. Alfhere was implicated in the murder of Edward. Interestingly it was he who translated Edward's body from its hasty burial at Wareham to Shaftesbury, where it was buried amongst great ceremony and talk of miracles. Alfhere remained the most powerful ealdorman until his death in 983. He succeeded in shaping Athelred's policy toward reducing the power of the monasteries, although Athelred later over-turned this. Alfhere also had to face the impact of the first Danish raids for thirty years, which marked the beginning of the end for the Saxon kingdom. When he died, Alfhere was not much loved, being regarded as something of a bully.
After Alfhere's death Athelred endeavoured to exert his own authority and even his mother's considerable power waned, though she lived till 1002. There was a period in the late 980s when Athelred sought to reduce the power of the church, but he subsequently reverted to his father's interests and promoted the construction of new monasteries under the new order. He also endeavoured to update the laws of the country and reorganize local government. This culminated in the Wantage Code of 997 which, compared to past law codes, showed an unprecedented willingness to accept local customs, especially those amongst the Danes of eastern England. Many of the odd and curious anomalies that we have in our customs and codes of conduct in this country were enshrined under this Code. Had Athelred's reign been measured by his willingness and ability to reform and organize, he would have been remembered kindly, but his mettle was tested when the Danish raids returned and England was pushed to the limit.
The raids began in a comparatively small way as early as 980 and continued through to 982. Most of the raids were in the south west, but Southampton was severely damaged and London was attacked and burned in 982. Raids ceased for the next few years and perhaps Athelred was lulled into a false sense of security, for in 987 they began again, once more in the south-west and then, in 991, a major battle at Maldon in Essex. The Danish leader Olaf Tryggvason outwitted the East Saxon ealdorman Beortnoth, and the Saxons were killed to a man. The first payment of danegeld, or what amounted to protection money, arose following this battle, a policy instigated at the suggestion of Sigeric, the archbishop of Canterbury, who was one of Athelred's poor advisers. Olaf used this ploy as he moved around the south and east, plundering and destroying and then extracting payment. In 994, after the Danes had invaded London, Athelred paid 16,000 pounds in danegeld, but this time on the basis that Olaf would accept Christianity and never again raid Britain. Olaf kept his promise. He used the money to strengthen his fleet and finance his bid for the kingship of Norway. But his command was superseded by others who had made no such agreement, and so the raids continued. Each year the danegeld increased until the riches of England were savagely reduced. In addition the monasteries were plundered and destroyed and with armies being kept mobilised for most of the year men were unable to harvest. The country grew poorer, the men weaker, and spirits lower. The men had no equivalent of ALFRED or EDWARD (THE ELDER) or ATHELSTAN to look to for leadership. Athelred had never been tested as a battle commander and he had no idea what to do. He also had to face desertion from amongst his own ealdormen, whose actions in fleeing the command of battle further weakened their men's morale. Athelred seemed powerless to punish them. Instead he shifted from one mad scheme to another, none of which worked and all of which reduced the country's morale further. At one point in 1009, he demanded that a whole new fleet be constructed, but he was unable to find sufficient able commanders and had no battle plans to meet the Danes in the waters they controlled. The fleet spent more time anchored off-shore than in battle, and once it moved into battle it was destroyed. Athelred did nothing to save it but left it to its fate. The venture was a disaster and drained the country's resources further. In 1002 Athelred married Emma, daughter of Richard, duke of Normandy. The marriage was almost certainly to create an alliance whereby Richard stopped the Danes using Normandy as a base for raiding southern England. Richard no doubt played his part, but the plan was another of Athelred's ineffective tactics.
Probably his worst decision was the St Brice's Day massacre on 13 November 1002. He ordered the killing of every Dane who lived in England except the Anglo-Danes of the Danelaw. It is unlikely that the edict was carried out to the letter, but there was fearful slaughter across southern England which left a bitter stain on Athelred's character. Even if the resident Danes had supported him previously, they now turned against him. The massacre brought back to English shores the Danish commander SWEIN who had accompanied Olaf on earlier missions. Legend has it that Swein's sister and her husband had been killed in the massacre and Swein returned to exact revenge. Swein's campaign lasted from 1003 to 1007 when Athelred agreed a peace treaty with him and paid over an immense danegeld of 30,000 pounds. Swein returned to Denmark, but new commanders took his place and the raids and slaughter continued. The next major enemy was Thorkell the Tall, who arrived with a major army in August 1009 and left a wave of destruction across southern England. The low point of this campaign was the murder of Alphege, the archbishop of Canterbury in 1012. Thorkell had not condoned the murder and he subsequently offered his services to help protect England. Athelred had to raise a new tax, the heregeld, to pay for Thorkell's army, but this band of mercenaries was more effective than the English army because it had a strong, sound leader. Nevertheless, the whole of England had now become a battlefield, and the English were prepared to submit. Swein read the signs correctly when he returned to England. He landed in the Humber in August 1013, and the Northumbrians immediately submitted, followed soon by the Danes of Danelaw. Athelred waited with Thorkell's fleet in the Thames off London, so Swein marched on Bath, where the Mercians and West Saxons capitulated. By December 1013 London collapsed and Athelred fled to Normandy.
Swein died only three months later and Athelred was recalled, when Swein's son, CANUTE, returned to establish himself in Denmark. Athelred's return was conditional on that he governed "more justly than he had done in the past." Matters did not improve, however. Early in the fighting against Canute, in 1014 Athelred's eldest son and heir, Athelstan, was killed in battle. Early in 1015 Athelred executed the two leading thanes of the Danelaw, whom he regarded as traitors, which did not endear him to Mercia or the north. His son, EDMUND, gained the support of the Danelaw, and when Canute returned later in 1015, England was divided and the armies refused to move against the Danes unless the king himself commanded them. By now, though, Athelred was dying. Although he was only forty-eight, he had lived longer than many of his predecessors and was worn out by the fighting. He died on 23 April 1016, leaving Edmund to continue to battle for survival. between 978 and 1016.23,24,8,25,9

; Per Enc. of World History: "An ebb in Viking raids was followed by a fresh onset during the reign of Ethelred the Unready (978-1016), led by Sven I (Forked Beard), king of Denmark. Danegeld had been sporadically collected under Alfred; now it was regularly levied and used as tribute to buy off the invaders. This tax, and the invasions, led to a rapid decline of the freeholders to a servile status. Under Canute, the Danegeld was transformed into a regular tax for defense. Collection of the Danegeld, originally in the hands of the towns, fell increasingly to the lord of the manor, and it was only a step from holding him for the tax to making him lord of the land from which the tax came."25

Family 2

Emma (?) of Normandy Queen of England b. c 985, d. 6 Mar 1051/52
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfrida: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020098&tree=LEO
  8. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  9. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 481-484. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  10. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  11. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO
  13. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 235-19, p. 201. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  14. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Normandy page (Normandy Family): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/normandy/normandy.html
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORMANDY.htm#EmmadieNormandied1052
  16. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 18 July 2020), memorial page for Ethelred the Unready (968–23 Apr 1016), Find a Grave Memorial no. 16391067, citing Saint Paul's Cathedral, London, City of London, Greater London, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/16391067. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  17. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelred_the_Unready. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  18. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Æthelred le Malavisé: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86thelred_le_Malavis%C3%A9. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  19. [S2286] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online http://oxforddnb.com/index/, https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-8915. Hereinafter cited as ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  20. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of Cerdic: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html#E2
  21. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Normandy page - Normandy Family: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/normandy/normandy.html
  22. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Ducs de Normandie, p. 3: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Normandie.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  23. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 1-19, p. 2.
  24. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  25. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 181. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  26. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elgiva/Alfgifu of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108329&tree=LEO
  27. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Egbert of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331085&tree=LEO
  28. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edred of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331086&tree=LEO
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331088&tree=LEO
  30. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028864&tree=LEO
  31. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfhild of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331093&tree=LEO
  32. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgiva of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331091&tree=LEO
  33. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331089&tree=LEO
  34. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331084&tree=LEO
  35. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  36. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B.
  37. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Sudeley Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  38. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boulogne.pdf, p. 3.
  39. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Godgifudiedbefore1049.
  40. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Godgifu of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00012362&tree=LEO

Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?)1,2

F, #4240, b. between 963 and 970, d. February 1002
FatherThored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria3,2,4,5 d. 992
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?) was born between 963 and 970; Genealogy.EU says b. ca 963; Genealogics says b. ca 970.1,2,4 She married Aethelred II "The UnraedRedeless" (?) The Redeless, son of Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England and Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England, in 985;
His 1st wife. Med Lands says m. 980/84.6,2,7,8,9,4
Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?) died in February 1002; Genealogy.EU says d. Feb 1002; Genealogics says d. bef 1002.1,2,4
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELRED, son of EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England & his second wife Ælfthryth of Devon ([966]-London 23 Apr 1016, bur Old St Paul's Cathedral). Simeon of Durham names "Eadmuind and Egelræd" as the sons of King Eadgar and his wife "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire…"[1780]. Roger of Hoveden gives his parentage[1781]. When his father died, a large number of nobles promoted the election of Æthelred to succeed instead of his older half-brother, maybe because the latter was considered unsuitable due to his outbursts of rage or because of the inferior status of his mother. He succeeded after the murder of his half-brother in 978 as ÆTHELRED II "the Unready/Unræd/Redeles" King of England, crowned 4 Apr or 4 May 978 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Danish attacks on England recommenced in 980, with raids on Hampshire, Thanet and Cheshire. Raids on Devon and Cornwall followed in 981, and on Dorset in 982. A further wave of attacks started in 988 in Devon. As part of his plan to control the Danes, King Æthelred agreed a non-aggression pact with Richard I "Sans Peur" Comte de Normandie on 1 Mar 991, designed apparently to dissuade either party from sheltering Viking marauders[1782]. After a third wave of attacks in 991, King Æthelred signed a treaty with Olaf Tryggveson (who succeeded in [995] as Olav I King of Norway) under which 22,000 pounds of gold and silver was paid in return for a promise of help in thwarting future attacks. The treaty presumably never came into full effect, despite payment of the money, as this was only the first of a long series of "Danegeld" payments funded by heavy taxation which ultimately led to the virtual ruin of King Æthelred's government. The attack of 994, in which for the first time Svend King of Denmark took part, resulted in some English support to declare Svend king from those who despaired of King Æthelred's government[1783]. The raids of 997/999 on Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, South Wales, Dorset and Kent, were followed in 1000 by the Danish army moving to Normandy to await the following summer. The king's second marriage in 1002 was presumably part of his continuing efforts to prevent the Normans from allowing the Danes to use their ports from which to attack England. King Æthelred ordered the massacre of Danes in England 13 Nov 1002[1784], which included the death of Gunhild sister of King Svend, although this only resulted in intensified attacks. In a desperate late attempt to strengthen the country's defences, King Æthelred ordered the construction of a fleet of new warships, completed in 1009. Nearly one third of the fleet was lost as a result of the rebellion of Wulfnoth, father of Godwin Earl of Wessex, and the attempt by Brihtric, brother of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor", to capture him[1785]. A full-scale Danish invasion came in 1013 and by the end of the year Svend King of Denmark had become de facto king of England. King Æthelred fled to Normandy after Christmas 1013[1786], but after Svend's death in Feb 1014 he was invited back, on condition he improved his rule[1787]. By end-Apr 1014, Æthelred counter-attacked the Danes in Lindsey, after which the Danish fleet, under King Svend's son Knud, withdrew to Denmark. In August 1015, Knud of Denmark invaded England again. During the latter part of King Æthelred's reign further trouble was caused by the treachery of his son-in-law Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor", appointed Ealdorman of Mercia in 1007. He acquired a position of considerable influence over the king, only to defect to Knud after this last invasion. The Danes controlled Wessex by the end of 1015, and Northumbria in early 1016, turning their attention to London and the south-east after King Æthelred died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St George's day 1016 of King Æthelred[1788]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “IX Kal Mai” of “Ethelredus rex Angliæ, qui dedit Brochtune”[1789].
     "[m] firstly ([980/85]) [ÆLFGIVA], daughter of ---. The information about the parentage of the first "wife" of King Æthelred is contradictory. According to Florence of Worcester’s genealogies, she was Ælfgiva, daughter of Ealdorman "Ægelberht", as he names "Ælfgiva, comitis Ægelberhti filia" as mother of King Æthelred’s three sons "Eadmundum, Eadwium et Æthelstanum" and his daughter "Eadgitham"[1790]. (It should be noted in passing that this is the only example of the root "Ægel-" being found in an Anglo-Saxon name; it is therefore possible that "Ægelberhti" represents a transcription error, maybe for "Æthelberhti".) On the other hand, Ailred Abbot of Rievaulx records that she was ---, daughter of Thored Ealdorman of York, naming "filia Torethi…comitis" as the mother of "Edmundum" [King Edmund "Ironsides"][1791]. The Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, written in [1245], must have used Ailred as its source as it states that the first wife of King Æthelred II was the daughter of "Count Torin"[1792]. Roger of Wendover is unspecific, noting that "rex Ethelredus" married "cujusdam ducis filiam" by whom he fathered "filium…Eadmundum", although in a later passage he says that King Eadmund had "matrem quondam ignobilem fœminam"[1793]. No trace of King Æthelred’s first wife has been found in any other contemporary document. In charters dated 996, King Æthelred's mother countersigns "Ælfthryth regina", but there is no mention of the king's wife. This suggests that Ælfgiva (if indeed that was her name) was an "unofficial" wife, having a similar status to Æthelflæd, first "wife" of King Eadgar, King Æthelred’s father. The will of her son ætheling Æthelstan, dated [1014], refers to "the soul of Ælfthryth my grandmother who brought me up" but makes no mention of his mother[1794], which suggests that she played little part in his early life. This seems suprising if she was in fact the mother of all King Æthelred's children who were not born to his known wife Emma, as is generally reported in most secondary sources. There must therefore be some doubt whether [Ælfgiva] was the king's only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie.
     "[m] [secondly] [---. No direct information has been found on this supposed second "wife" of King Æthelred. However, as noted above, there must be some doubt whether Ælfgiva, if indeed that was her name, was the king’s only wife or concubine before his marriage to Emma de Normandie. In addition, no information has been found in any of the primary sources so far consulted which identifies the mother of King Æthelred’s children, generally attributed by secondary sources to his first marriage, other than his three sons Eadmund, Eadwig and Æthelstan. It is therefore possible that King Æthelred had more than one "unofficial" wives or concubines who may have been the mother(s) of some or all of his children. It is even possible that the unnamed daughter of Ealdorman Thored (referred to by Ailred of Rievaulx) was not the same person as Ælfgiva (named by Florence of Worcester) and that they were both "married" to King Æthelred, either at the same time or one after the other. If this is correct, the sources are contradictory regarding the identity of the mother of King Eadmund "Ironsides".]
     "m [secondly/thirdly] (betrothed 1000, 1002[1795]) as her first husband, EMMA de Normandie, daughter of RICHARD I "Sans Peur" Comte de Normandie & his second wife Gunnora --- ([985]-Winchester 14 Mar 1052, bur Winchester Cathedral, Old Minster[1796]). Guillaume de Poitou names “genitrix Emma filia Ricardi primi, genitor Ædelredus rex Anglorum” as parents of “Edwardus ac Alveradus”[1797]. Guillaume of Jumièges names “Emma...secunda Hadvis...tertia Mathildis” as the three daughters of Richard and his wife “Gunnor ex nobilissima Danorum prosapia ortam”, adding that Emma married “Edelredo regi Anglorum” by whom she was mother of “rex Edwardum et Alvredum”[1798]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names "Emma Anglorum regina" as sister of "dux Normannie Richardus II"[1799]. Emma was described by Henry of Huntingdon as "Emma Normanorum gemma"[1800], although it is not known whether this was a particular indication of her beauty or mere hyperbole. She adopted the name "ÆLFGIFU" in England[1801]. "Ælfgifu regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 1002 and 1012, also referred to as "Ælfgifu conlaterana regis"[1802]. Her first husband sent her to her brother's court in Normandy in 1013 after the invasion of Svend King of Denmark[1803]. She was living in Normandy in 1017 when King Æthelred's successor King Canute proposed marriage to her. She married King Canute as her second husband (2 or 31 Jul 1017). Guillaume of Jumièges records that, after the death of “Edelredus rex”, “Emmam reginam” married “rex...Chunutus...Christiano more”, and names their children “Hardechunutum postmodum regem Danorum et filiam...Gunnildem quæ nupsit Henrico Romanorum Imperatori”[1804]. Roger of Wendover records the marriage in Jul 1018 of "Cnuto" and "ducem Ricardum…Emmam sororem suam et regis Ethelredi relictam"[1805]. After the death of her second husband, she continued to live at Winchester. After the election of her step-son as regent in early 1036, it was recognised that she would continue to live there to look after the interests of her son Harthacnut (then absent in Denmark), who had nominally succeeded his father as King of England and Denmark. It is likely that she encouraged her sons by her first husband, Edward and Alfred, to join her. After Harold was recognised as King of England in 1037, Queen Emma was expelled from England and took refuge at Bruges[1806]. She commissioned the work later known as the Encomium Emmæ Reginæ from a Flemish convent at Saint-Omer, maybe St Bertin's, designed to promote her son Harthacnut's claim to the English throne. Harthacnut joined her in Bruges in early 1040, and after the death of King Harold, they returned together to England. After the accession of Edward "the Confessor" to the English throne, Emma appears to have supported the rival claim of Magnus King of Norway[1807]. Whatever the truth of this, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that King Edward did confiscate her property in 1043[1808]. She seems to have spent the last years of her life in retirement in Winchester[1809]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of "Ælfgifu Emma, the mother of king Edward and of king Harthacnut" in 1052[1810]."
Med Lands cites:
[1780] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1781] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1782] Houts, E. van (ed. and trans.) (2000) The Normans in Europe (Manchester University Press), p. 102.
[1783] Stenton (2001), p. 378.
[1784] Greenway, D. (ed.) (2002) Henry of Huntingdon: The History of the English People 1000-1154 (Oxford UP) ("Henry of Huntingdon"), II, 2, p. 7.
[1785] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1009.
[1786] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[1787] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 10, p. 12.
[1788] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1016.
[1789] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1790] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, Genealogia regum West-Saxonum, p. 275.
[1791] Aelredus Rievallensis Abbas, Genealogia Regum Anglorum, Migne, Patrologia Latina, Vol 195, col. 730B.
[1792] La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Rei, MS Cantab. Ee III 59, from Bishop Moore's Library, 11, pp. 195-218, cited in Ronay, G. (1989) The Lost King of England, The East European Adventures of Edward the Exile (Boydell Press), p. 8.
[1793] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, pp. 422 and 451.
[1794] EHD, 129, pp. 593-6.
[1795] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 1 and 2, pp. 6 and 7.
[1796] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C, 1051.
[1797] Gesta Guillelmi Ducis Normannorum et Regis Anglorum a Guillelmo Pictavensi, Du Chesne, A. (1619) Historiæ Normannorum Scriptores Antiqui (Paris) (“Gesta a Guillelmo Pictavensi (Du Chesne, 1619)”), p. 178.
[1798] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber IV, XVIII, p. 247.
[1799] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1026, MGH SS XXIII, p. 783.
[1800] Henry of Huntingdon, II, 2, p. 7.
[1801] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, F, 1013 and 1017.
[1802] S 902, S 909, S 910, S 915, S 916, S 918, S 923 and S 926.
[1803] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 1013.
[1804] Willelmi Gemmetencis Historiæ (Du Chesne, 1619), Liber V, IX, p. 253.
[1805] Coxe, H. O. (ed.) (1841) Rogeri de Wendover Chronica sive Flores historiarum (London) ("Roger of Wendover"), Vol. I, p. 463.
[1806] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E and F, 1037.
[1807] Barlow (1983), pp. 51-6.
[1808] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 1043, and E, 1042 [1043].
[1809] Stafford, P. 'Emma: The Powers of the Queen in the Eleventh Century', Duggan, A. (ed.) (1997) Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe (The Boydell Press), p. 6.
[1810] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1052.9


; Per Genealogy.EU: "Ethelred II "the Unraed or Redeless", meaning without counsel, King of England (978-1013)+(1014-16), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 4.4.978, *ca 966/8, +London 23.4.1016, bur Old St.Paul's Cathedral, London;
     1m: ca 980/5 Elgiva (*ca 963, +Winchester II.1002, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of either Ealdorman Ethelbert or Thored, Ealdorman of York;
     2m: Winchester Cathedral 5.4.1002 Emma of Normandy (*ca 985/7 +14.3.1052.)10"

Reference: Geenalogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 190.4

; This is the same person as ”Ælfgifu of York” at Wikipedia.11

; Per Genealogics:
     “Elgiva/Aelgifu of York was the first wife of Aethelred II 'the Unready', king of England, son of Edgar 'the Peaceful', king of England, and his second wife Elfrida. She had at least eleven children by Aethelred, of whom three would have progeny, including his son and successor Edmund Ironside. It is most probable that she was a daughter of Thored, earl of southern Northumbria.
     “Elgiva's name and paternity do not surface in the sources until sometime after the Conquest. The first to offer any information at all, Sulcard of Westminster, merely describes her as being 'of very noble English stock' _(ex nobilioribus Anglis),_ without naming her.
     “All primary evidence comes from two Anglo-Norman historians, John of Worcester in a chronicle which is thought to rely on earlier material compiled about 1100, tells that Aethelred's first wife was Elgiva, daughter of the nobleman Aethelberht _(comes Agelberhtus)_ and the mother of Edmund, Aethelstan, Eadwig and Eadgyth. Writing in the 1150s, Ailred of Rievaulx identifies Aethelred's first wife as a daughter of earl (comes) Thored and mother of Edmund, though he supplies no name. Ailred had been seneschal at the court of Dabid mac Máil Choluim, David I 'the Saint', king of Scots, whose mother St. Margaret of Wessex descended from King Aethelred and his first wife. Although his testimony is late, his proximity to the royal family may have given him access to genuine information.
     “Historians generally favour the view that John of Worcester was in error about the father's name, as Aethelberht's very existence is under suspicion. All in all, the combined evidence suggests that Aethelred's first wife was Elgiva, the daughter of Earl Thored. The magnate is likely to have been Thored who was a son of Gunnar and earl of (southern) Northumbria.
     “Based largely on the careers of her sons, Elgiva's marriage has been dated approximately to the mid 980s. Considering Thored's authority as earl of York, and apparently the tenure of that office without royal appointment, the union would have signified an important step for the West Saxon royal family by which it secured a foothold in the north. Such a politically weighty union would help explain the close connections maintained by Elgiva's eldest sons Edmund and Aethelstan with noble families based in the northern Danelaw.
     “Unlike her mother-in-law Elfrida/Aelfthryth, Elgiva was not anointed queen and never signed charters. Just as little is known of Elgiva's life, so the precise date and circumstances of her death cannot be recovered. She appears to have died by 1002, possibly in childbirth, when Aethelred married Emma of Normandy, daughter of Richard I 'the Fearless', duke of Normandy, who received or adopted her predecessor's Anglo-Saxon name, Elgiva.”.4 Elgiva/Aelfgifu/Elfreda (?) was also known as Elfgifu.12 GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-28.

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 481-484. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thored#/media/File:Kingdom_of_Jorvik.png. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  6. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_York
  12. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elgiva/Alfgifu of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108329&tree=LEO
  14. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Egbert of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331085&tree=LEO
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edred of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331086&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331088&tree=LEO
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00028864&tree=LEO
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfhild of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331093&tree=LEO
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgiva of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331091&tree=LEO
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331089&tree=LEO
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Athelstan of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331084&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund II Ironside: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020116&tree=LEO
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied1016B.

Ealhswith (?) of Mercia1,2,3,4

F, #4241, b. between 850 and 855, d. between 5 December 904 and 905
FatherAethelred Mucil/Mucel (?) Ealdorman of the Gaini2,5,3,4
MotherEadburh (?)2,3,4
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited5 Sep 2020
     Ealhswith (?) of Mercia was born between 850 and 855 at Mercia, England; Genealogics says b. ca 852; Genealogy.EU says b. ca 850/5; Med Lands says bb. 848/53.1,3,4 She married Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England, son of Aethelwulf (?) King of Wessex and Osburh/Osburga (?), between 868 and 869 at City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England; Genealogics says m. 869; Genealogy.EU says m. 868/9; The Henry Project says m. 868.6,1,2,7,8,9,10,4
Ealhswith (?) of Mercia died between 5 December 904 and 905 at St. Mary's Abbey, Winchester, co. Hampshire, England; Genealogics says d. 904; Genealogy.EU says d. 5/8 Dec 905; Med Lands says d. 904.11,6,1,2,4
Ealhswith (?) of Mercia was buried after 5 December 905 at Hyde Abbey, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     ORIGINAL NAME     Ealhswith De Mercid
     BIRTH     852, England
     DEATH     5 Dec 902 (aged 49–50), Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England
     Born about 852 in Mercia, Consort of Alfred the Great and mother of Edward the Elder. Died Dec 5 905, she was widowed and became a nun. She was a nun in the abbey that she had founded in 903, Nunnaminster (St. Mary's Abbey) in Winchester. However, she was not buried there. She was buried first in Winchester New Minster, then, when the new abbey church of Hyde was consecrated in 1110, the bodies of Alfred, his wife Ealhswith, and his son Edward the Elder were carried in state through Winchester to be interred once more before the high altar. Their royal presence made Hyde Abbey a popular pilgrimage destination.
     Family Members
     Spouses
          Alfred the Great 849–899
          Alfred the Great 849–899
     Children
          Æthelflæd 869–918
          Edward the Elder 874–924
     Ælfthryth of Wessex Countess De Flanders 875–929
     BURIAL     Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England
     Created by: Brett Williams
     Added: 17 Feb 2011
     Find a Grave Memorial 65780749.12
     ; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “C4. Alfred "the Great", King of Wessex (871-99), cr Kingston-upon-Thames, *Wantage, Dorset 849, +Winchester 26.10.899, bur Newminster Abbey but later transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester; m.Winchester 868/9 Ethelswitha (*ca 850/5, +as a nun at St.Mary's Abbey, Winchester 5/8.12.905, bur there later at Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ethelred Mucel, Ealdorman of the Gainas”.13

; Per Weis: "Alfred the Great, by (1), King of England, 871-899, b. Wantage, Berkshire, 849; d. 26 Oct. 899; m. 869, Ealhswith, d. 904, dau. of Aethelred Mucill, ealdorman of the Gaini, by Edburga, his wife. (ASC 853, 871, 891, 894, 897, 901; DNB 1:153-162; Asser, Life of Alfred; ES II/78)."8

; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆLFRED, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (Wantage, Berkshire 849-26 Oct 899, bur Winchester Cathedral, transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester, later called the New Minster[1571]). Asser records the birth in 849 of Alfred, son of King Æthelwulf, at Wantage in Berkshire[1572]. "Ælfred filius regis" subscribed charters of Kings Æthelwulf, Æthelberht, Æthelred I in 855, 862 (anachronistic), 864 and 868[1573]. Asser records that in 853, his father sent him to Rome where Pope Leo IV baptised him[1574]. He succeeded his brother in 871 as ALFRED King of Wessex. After the Danish victory at Wilton in May 871, King Alfred agreed to pay Danegeld for the first time as the price for ceasing further attacks. After a second invasion of Wessex in 875/77, during which Wareham in Dorset and Exeter were occupied, Alfred again bought peace in 877. He was forced to flee westwards in the face of a third invasion in 878 during which Chippenham was occupied, and took refuge at Athelney in Somerset. King Alfred's subsequent counter-offensive proved more effective, as he defeated the Danes under Guthrum at Edington in Wiltshire in May 878. After mixed successes against the Danes in East Anglia in 885, and his occupation of London in 886, Alfred made a peace treaty with Guthrum which lasted until 892. "Ælfred rex" subscribed a charter of "Æthelred dux et patricius gentis Merciorum" dated 887[1575]. The Danish offensive of 892/96 was less successful and no further Danish attacks on Wessex are recorded after 896. King Alfred is famous for the fleet of ships built to his design in the hope of defeating the Danes while they were still at sea, considered as forming the basis for the modern English navy. Having learnt Latin late in life, Alfred was responsible for English translations of five Latin works between 892 and 899: Gregory the Great's Cura Pastoralis, Orosius's History of the Ancient World, Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, Boethius's De Consolatione Philosophae, and a collection which starts with the Soliloquies of St Augustine. He was also responsible for a collection of laws, although these were largely refinements of the works of his predecessors Ine King of Wessex, Offa King of Mercia and Æthelberht King of Kent. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Alfred on 26 Oct 899[1576]. King Alfred, under his will probably dated to [879/88], made bequests (in order) to "Edward my elder son", his unnamed younger son, his unnamed eldest, middle and youngest daughters, "my brother's son Æthelhelm…my brother's son Æthelwold…my kinsman Osferth" and Ealswith[1577].
     "m (Winchester 868) EALHSWITH, daughter of ÆTHELRED "Mucil" Ealdorman of the Gainas & his wife Eadburh (-Winchester 5 or 8 Dec 905[1578], bur Winchester, St Mary's Abbey, transferred to Winchester Cathedral). Asser records the marriage in 868 of Alfred and "a noble Mercian lady, daughter of Athelred surnamed Mucil earl of the Gaini…[and] Edburga of the royal line of Mercia"[1579]. Roger of Hoveden records the names of her parents, specifying that her mother was related to the kings of Mercia. "Ealhswith mater regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901[1580]. She founded the convent of St Mary's at Winchester, and became a nun there after her husband died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death in [902/05] of "Ealhswith"[1581]."
Med Lands cites:
[1571] Malmesbury II, 124, p. 108.
[1572] Asser, p. 2.
[1573] S 315 (King Æthelwulf), S 333 (King Æthelberht), S 334 and S 340 (King Æthelred).
[1574] Asser, Part I. Kirby (2000), p. 164, suggests it is more likely that Alfred accompanied his father to Rome in 855.
[1575] S 217.
[1576] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, D and E, 901 [899].
[1577] S 1507, and EHD, 96, pp. 534-7.
[1578] Florence of Worcester, 905, p. 88.
[1579] Asser, p. 11.
[1580] S 363.
[1581] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 905 [904], C, 902, and D, 905.9


; This is the same person as ”Ealhswith” at Wikipedia; as ”Æhlswith of the Gainas” at Geneagraphie; as ”Ealhswith” at The Henry Project; and as ”Ealhswith” at the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.14,15,16,17 Ealhswith (?) of Mercia was also known as Ethelswitha (?)1

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 189.
2. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.)
3. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von.3
GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-30.

; Per Med Lands:
     "EALHSWITH ([848/53]-904). Asser records the marriage in 868 of Alfred and "a noble Mercian lady, daughter of Athelred surnamed Mucil earl of the Gaini…[and] Edburga of the royal line of Mercia"[154]. Roger of Hoveden records the names of her parents, specifying that her mother was related to the kings of Mercia[155]. Her birth date is estimated from her having given birth to her first child in 869. "Ealhswith mater regis" subscribed a charter of King Edward dated 901[156]. She founded the convent of St Mary's at Winchester, and became a nun there after her husband died.
     "m (868) ALFRED of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [first] wife Osburga (Wantage, Berkshire 849[157]-26 Oct 899, bur Winchester Cathedral, transferred to Hyde Abbey, Winchester, later called the New Minster). He succeeded in 871 as ALFRED King of Wessex."
Med Lands cites:
[154] Asser, p. 11.
[155] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 38. According to Weir (2002), p. 9, Eadburh was perhaps the daughter of Cenwulf King of Mercia, although the basis of this hypothesis is not clear.
[156] S 363.
[157] Asser, Part I.4

Family

Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England b. bt 099 - 099, d. 26 Oct 899
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ealhswith: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/ealhs000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealhswith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018647&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Ealhswithdied904. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Æthelred Mucil/Mucel: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/aethe003.htm
  6. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 298, 319-321. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Alfred 'the Great': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00000123&tree=LEO
  8. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 1-14; p. 1.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Alfreddied899B.
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ælfred "the Great": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/aelfr000.htm
  11. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 05 September 2020), memorial page for Ealhswith of Gaini (852–5 Dec 902), Find a Grave Memorial no. 65780749, citing Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/65780749/ealhswith-of_gaini. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ealhswith. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S4743] Geneagraphie - Families all over the world (Website), online <http://geneagraphie.com/>, Æhlswith of the Gainas: https://geneagraphie.com/getperson.php?personID=I14409&tree=1. Hereinafter cited as Geneagraphie.
  16. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ealhswith: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/ealhs000.htm
  17. [S2286] Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, online http://oxforddnb.com/index/, Ealhswith: https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/39226. Hereinafter cited as ODNB - Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO
  20. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm
  21. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elftrudis|Alfthryth of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018646&tree=LEO
  23. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Aelfthrythdied929MBaudouinIIFlanders.
  24. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ælfthryth (Ælfðryð, Elftrude): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/aelft001.htm
  25. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).

Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England1,2,3

M, #4242, b. circa 943, d. 8 July 975
FatherEdmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England3,4,5,6,7 b. 921, d. 26 May 946
MotherSaint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)3,4,5,7,8 b. c 922, d. 18 May 944
ReferenceGAV28 EDV29
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was born circa 943.2,9,3,4,5 He married Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?), daughter of Ordmaer (?) Ealdorman of Devon and Ealda (?), circa 960;
His 1st wife. Genealogics says m. ca 960; Med Lands says m. 963; Genealogy.EU says m. ca 961.2,9,3,4,5,10,11 Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England married Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England, daughter of Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon, in 965;
His 2nd wife; her 2nd husband.12,13,3,4,5,14,15
Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England died on 8 July 975 at Winchester, co. Hampshire, England.2,9,3,4,5
Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was buried after 8 July 975 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England.9,3,5


Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was buried after 8 July 975 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     943
     DEATH     8 Jul 975 (aged 31–32)
     English Monarch. Born sometime between 942 and 944, he was the son of Eadmund I and Alfgiva, the younger brother of Eadwig (also called Edwy) "the Fair" who would precede him to the throne. His mother died within his first year and his father was stabbed to death three years later. He was then raised in the household of Ethhelstan, called Half-King. Eadgar's uncle, Edred, ruled until his death in 955, followed by his brother, who was an unpopular king and whose reign was marked by conflict with the Church, which was punctuated by his banishment of both Dunstan and Archbishop Odo. After Eadwig's death at about 20 in 959, Eadgar ascended, consolidating the kingdoms of Mercia, Northumbria, and Wessex, becoming one of the first to claim the title of King of all England. He recalled Dunstan and appointed him Bishop of Worcester, then Bishop of London, then Archbishop of Canterbury. They implemented a monastic reform; removing secular priests and replacing them with monks, appointed new bishops and priests, and transferred a great deal of land to the church. He married Ethelfleda Eneda between 961 and 962, and with her had one son, known to history as Edward the Martyr. At about the same time, he was said to have abducted and seduced a nun called Wulfrith, and with her had a daughter, later known as Saint Edith. After the death of Ethelfleda about 963 he sought a new wife. According to legend, in about 965 he joined a hunt with a nobleman, Edgar, who was reputed to have a beautiful wife. The king's javelin found Edgar's back during the hunt, and the widow married him, giving him two sons, the younger of whom would be known as Ethelred the Unready. He was belatedly crowned King of England on May 11, 973 at Bath Abbey by Bishop Dunstan, after which all the lesser rulers, including the Welsh princes, swore allegiance. His reign was marked by political stability and efficient courts, while education and literature flourished. He died at Winchester at about age 32 and was succeeded by his eldest son. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Eadmund I the Elder 921–946
          Aelfgith the Younger 922–944
     Spouse
     Elfrida of Devon unknown–1000
     Half Siblings
          Eadwig 941–959
     Children
          Edward the Martyr 962–979
          Ethelred the Unready 968–1016
     BURIAL     Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: girlofcelje
     Added: 30 Nov 2003
     Find a Grave Memorial 8140973.16
     ; Per Genealogics:
     “Edgar was born about 943, the son of Edmund I 'the Magnificent', king of England, and St. Aelgifu. Edgar was said to have been handsome and charming, short, slim, and strong. Edgar was probably brought up at the court of his uncle, King Eadwig. Chosen king in Mercia and the Danelaw in 957, he was proclaimed king of all the English after the death of Eadwig.
     “Edgar and his second wife Elfrida, daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, had two sons of whom Aethelred would have progeny.
     “He was spared Viking attacks, and was able to treat the south and 'the Danelaw' as integral parts of his kingdom. He led an expedition against the king of Gwynedd (circa 968) and established friendly relations with Kenneth II by ceding Lothian. He conciliated his Danish subjects by employing some in his service. Raising new fleets ('shipfyrd'), he was remembered as having sailed round his kingdom every winter and spring. A stern and uncompromising judge, he instilled order in the realm and promoted effective government.
     “Edgar died on 8 July 975, and was buried at Glastonbury Abbey. He was succeeded by his eldest son Edward.”.4 GAV-28 EDV-29.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, Oxford, 1988, Cannon, John and Griffiths, Ralph. 62 biography.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700, 7th Edition, 1992, Weis, Frederick Lewis. 2.
3. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.
4. The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes, Oxford, 1991 , Longford, Elizabeth. 31.4


; This is the same person as ”Edgar the Peaceful” at Wikipedia.17

; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic): “F2. Edgar "the Peacable", King of England (959-975) -cr Bath Abbey 11.5.973, *ca 943, +Winchester 8.7.975, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; 1m: ca 961 Ethelfleda "the Fair" (+in childbirth ca 962, bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire), dau.of Ealdorman Ordmaer; 2m: ca 964/5 Elfrida (*Lydford Castle, Devon ca 945, +as a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire ca.17.11.1002, bur ther), dau.of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon”.3

; Per Med Lands:
     "EDGAR, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1725]). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium…Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo…sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context[1726]. "Adgar clito" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 953[1727], and "Eadgar frater regis" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956[1728]. He was elected king in 957 by the people of Mercia and Northumbria[1729], apparently supported by his grandmother and by Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. He supervised the revival of Benedictine monasticism and the reform of the English church. He was crowned in Bath Abbey 11 May 973, followed by the ceremonial submission to his rule by six British kings[1730] at Chester. The ceremony resulted in no change in the title used in charters when naming the king, who was referred to indiscriminately as "rex Anglorum", "totius Britannie telluris dominus", "totie Britannice insule basileus" or "rex totius Albionis". The reform of the coinage took place in the same year, including the introduction of a system of coin management which involved regular recall and reissue of coins usually every six years, operated through a network of 40 mint towns. The administrative sub-divisions of the shires, hundreds and wapentakes, date from Edgar's reign. King Edgar granted autonomy to the Danish eastern part of England, which came to be known as the Danelaw, with recognition of its legal and social customs. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 8 Jul 975 of King Edgar[1731]. Simeon of Durham records the death "VIII Id Jul" in 975 of "King Eadgar" and his burial at Glastonbury[1732]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Edgarus rex Anglie…qui dedit…terræ in Burewelle et ecclesiam de Gomicestre”[1733].
     "[m] firstly ([963], maybe repudiated[1734]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ORDMÆR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife Ealda (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1735]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[1736]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar’s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1737]. This union of King Edgar’s may have been less formal than implied by the word "marriage". This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from this first marriage) is described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[1738]. Æthelflæd was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[1739].
     "m secondly (965) as her second husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, widow of ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, daughter of ORDGAR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife --- (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[1740]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[1741]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[1742]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king’s knowledge[1743]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[1744]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[1745]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[1746]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[1747]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[1748], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[1749]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[1750].
     "Mistress (1): WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([945]-1000). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1751]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Sancta Elfthritha"[1752]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar’s daughter "Eadgitham"[1753]. Abbess of Wilton. King Edgar granted "Wulfthryth abbess" land at Chalke, Wiltshire by charter dated 974[1754]."
Med Lands cites:
[1725] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 105.
[1726] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 133.
[1727] S 570.
[1728] S 582, S 583, S 584, S 593, S 597, S 666 and S 663.
[1729] Florence of Worcester, 957, p. 101.
[1730] Identified as Kenneth King of the Scots, Iago King of Gwynedd, Hywel son of Idwal [Iago's nephew], Maccus Haroldson, Dunmail King of Strathclyde, and Malcolm King of the Cumbrians [Dunmail's son].
[1731] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 975.
[1732] Simeon of Durham, p. 508.
[1733] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1734] Weir (2002), p. 20.
[1735] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1736] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1737] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1738] S 746.
[1739] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[1740] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[1741] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1742] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1743] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[1744] S 703.
[1745] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[1746] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140.
[1747] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[1748] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[1749] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[1750] S 904.
[1751] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1752] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1753] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1754] S 799.5
He and Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?) were associated; She was his mistress.4,5,18
; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆLFTHRYTH (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[35]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[36]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[37]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[38]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[39]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[40]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[41]. She was crowned with her husband in 973, apparently the first recorded instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as king[42]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[43], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[44]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[45].
     "m firstly [as his second wife,] ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, son of --- (-before 964). The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelwald as husband of Ælfthryth[46].
     "m secondly ([965]) as his second wife, EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey)."
Med Lands cites:
[35] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[36] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[37] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[38] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[39] S 703.
[40] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[41] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 157, p. 140.
[42] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[43] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[44] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[45] S 904.
[46] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14, cited in PASE "Ælfthryth 8".15


; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELFLÆD (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[23]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[24]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar´s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[25]. This union of King Edgar may have been less formal than implied by marriage. This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from the king's union with Æthelflæd) described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[26]. She was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[27].
     "m ([963], maybe repudiated[28]) as his first [wife], EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey)."
Med Lands cites:
[23] Stevenson, J. (trans.) (1855) The Historical Works of Simeon of Durham (London) (“Simeon of Durham”), p. 506.
[24] Stubbs, W. (ed.) (1868) Chronica, Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (Longman, London) ("Roger of Hoveden") I, p. 62.
[25] Thorpe, B. (ed.) (1849) Florentii Wigorniensis Monachi Chronicon (London) (“Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon”), Vol. I, p. 140.
[26] S 746.
[27] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[28] Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 20.11
Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England was King of England: [Ashley, pp. 478-480] EDGAR THE PEACEABLE King of the English, 1 October 959-8 July 975 (he was appointed king of Mercia and Northumbria from 957). Crowned: Bath Abbey, 11 May 973. Born: c943. Died: Winchester, 8 July 975, aged 32. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: (1) c960, Athelfleda, dau. Ordmaer, ealdorman of Hertford: either divorced c961 or died c961 or c964: 1 son; (2) c964, Elfrida (c945-c1002), dau. Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, and widow of Athelwald, ealdorman of East Anglia: 2 children. Also had at least one illegitimate child. The Saxon name Eadgar means "rich in spears", which was undoubtedly a recognition of his inheritance of military power. When Edgar's uncle EADRED died in 955, his brother EDWY became king in Wessex whilst Edgar was appointed to the kingship of Mercia and Northumbria. He was only twelve at the time and did not assume full authority until he was about fifteen, by which time he was welcomed, as Edwy was a weak and unpopular king. Edgar had been raised in East Anglia, in the household of Athelstan, the ealdorman of the old territory of the Danelaw which covered all of east Anglia and Danish Mercia. As such Edgar was already a popular prince amongst the middle-English and Danes and was readily accepted as king, whereas Edwy was seen as a weak and troublesome youth. By November 957 the Mercians and Northumbrians had renounced their allegiance to Edwy. Both kings were advised (or controlled) by a strong council which had led to conflict with Edwy who had expelled bishop Dunstan. When Edgar came of age he recalled Dunstan and was enthusiastic about his ideas for reforming the English church. When Edwy died in October 959, Edgar also became king of Wessex and as the archbishopric of Canterbury was vacant with the recent death of Oda, Dunstan was appointed to that see. With the support of the king, Dunstan introduced a major programme of monastic reform, not all of which was happily accepted at the time, but which brought Saxon England in line with developments on the continent. All secular clergy were ejected, and the church officials were granted considerable independence from the crown. The most extreme of these was the creation of the soke of Peterborough, where the abbot of St Peters had almost total independence. Many of the monasteries that had been destroyed during the Danish invasions were restored. It was only a period of peace that could allow such rebuilding and change. Edgar, for all that he was not a soldier or strategist to match his father or grandfather, was able to work alongside strong and well organized ealdormen in governing the kingdom and in ensuring its safety. All the time England seemed in capable hands, the Norse and Danes bided their time.
In 973 Edgar gave a demonstration of authority. Although he probably had a formal coronation when he became king of Wessex, Dunstan believed there was a need for a major ceremony similar to those of the King of the Franks and the German Emperor. The ceremony was delayed for some years because Dunstan was unhappy with Edgar's dissolute life. For all he supported the church reform Edgar was not a particularly religious man. There were rumours about his private life, which may have some base of truth. He had married a childhood friend, Athelfleda, early in life, but it seems that either she died in childbirth around the year 961 or the two became separated because of Edgar's amorous adventures with Wulfryth. Stories were later attached to the episode that Edgar had seduced a nun, but although Wulfryth later became a nun, the real story seems to be that he fell in love with a lady who bore him a child, but she either chose to enter (or was banished to) a nunnery and they probably never married. Edgar then became romantically entangled with Elfrida, who was already married, and again the scandalmongers hinted that the two might have planned the murder of her husband, Edgar's onetime foster-brother Athelwald in 964, in order to marry. Elfrida later came to epitomise the image of the wicked stepmother in her relationship with Edgar's youngest child, EDWARD (THE MARTYR). All of these shenanigans caused Dunstan to counsel Edgar to change his ways. Perhaps as he passed from youth into adulthood he became less reckless, and in 973 Dunstan agreed to a major ceremony at Bath. The coronation had double significance. For the first time a Saxon king was crowned as king of all the English, a title used by previous monarchs but never as part of their coronation. Edgar was thus the first genuine king of England. At the same time Elfrida was also crowned, the first queen of the English. This ceremony has remained essentially the same in content ever since. Following the coronation, Edgar put on a display of force. His army marched along the Welsh border from Bath to Chester, showing his authority over the Welsh, whilst his fleet sailed through the Irish Sea, also demonstrating his subjugation of the Norse who still held power in that area at Dublin and on Man. At Chester eight kings of Wales and the north assembled to make their submission to him. A later chronicler suggested that these eight kings then rowed Edgar along the river Dee with him at the helm. Strong though that image is, it is unlikely. It is more probable that there was a ceremonial voyage along the Dee with Edgar at the helm, and the other kings in submission. The coronation and ceremony were immensely significant. Although Edgar's position had been achieved by his predecessors, he was able to capitalise on it and demonstrate his authority over all of Britain with the exception of Orkney. Not all monarchs were present, the most noticeable absentee being OWAIN AP HYWEL of Deheubarth, though his absence was due to domestic strife rather than lack of respect. THORFINN SKULL-SPLITTER was not present, but as he owed his allegiance to the Norwegian crown, he might be excused - although, interestingly, MAGNUS HARALDSSON of Man and the Isles was present.
The ceremony marked the end of a peaceful and prosperous reign, and it was fortunate that the English could not see ahead as Edgar's was the last reign of peace and harmony. The Saxon world would thereafter start to disintegrate and within less than a century be almost wiped away. between 1 October 959 and 8 July 975.13,19,2,9,17

Family 1

Aethelflaeda "the Fair" (?) d. c 962
Child

Family 2

Saint Wulfthryth/Wulfrida (?) b. c 945, d. 1000
Child

Family 3

Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England b. c 945, d. 17 Nov 1000
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 18. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_I. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Aelgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020088&tree=LEO
  9. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelflaed: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020096&tree=LEO
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AethelflaedMEdgar.
  12. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  13. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-18, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfrida: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020098&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AelfthrythM2Edgar.
  16. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 July 2020), memorial page for Edgar the Peaceful (943–8 Jul 975), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8140973, citing Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8140973. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  17. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_the_Peaceful
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wulfrida|Wulfthryth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020100&tree=LEO
  19. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-17.
  20. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Eadgyth: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331076&tree=LEO
  21. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331075&tree=LEO
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B.

Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England1,2,3

F, #4243, b. circa 945, d. 17 November 1000
FatherOrdgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon4,2,5,6 b. c 920, d. 971
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited24 Dec 2020
     Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England married Athelwald (?) Ealdorman of East Anglia, son of Aethelstan (?) and Aelfwynn (?);
Her 1st husband; his 2nd wife.7,2,8 Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England was born circa 945 at Lydford Castle, Lydford, West Devon Borough, Devonshire, England.1,2,8,9 She married Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England, son of Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England and Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), in 965;
His 2nd wife; her 2nd husband.10,11,1,12,13,2,8
Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England died on 17 November 1000 at Wherwell Abbey, Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England; Med Lands says d. 999/1002; Genealogics says d. 17 Nov 1000.1,2,8
Elfrida/Aelfthryth (?) Queen of England was buried after 17 November 1000 at Wherwell Abbey (Ruins), Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknownm Lydford, West Devon Borough, Devon, England
     DEATH     17 Nov 1000, Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England
     English Royalty. Queen consort of King Edgar the Peaceful. Also known as Aethelfrida or Aelfrith, she was the daughter of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon and Lady Wulfrith. She married Ethelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia and had two sons by him. Legend says that King Edgar killed Ethelwald, perhaps with the help of Elfrida, because he desired her hand in marriage. Elfrida married Edgar as his second queen in 965. They had one son, Aethelred. After Edgar's death in 975, the throne went to his son Edward, from his first marriage to Ethelfraeda the Fair. Though Edward had the support of the church, he was opposed by Queen Elfrida. It is said Elfrida had Edward stabbed to death at Corfe Castle in 978, so her son Aethelred could take the throne. She founded Wherwell Abbey in atonement for Edward's murder, and spent the rest of her life as the Abbess. She died there at the age of about 55. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Ordgor Aefthryth Ealdorman of Devon unknown–971
     Spouse
          Edgar the Peaceful 943–975
     Children
          Ethelred the Unready 968–1016
     BURIAL     Wherwell Abbey (Ruins), Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 18 Apr 2005
     Find a Grave Memorial 10811083.9
     ; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic): “F2. Edgar "the Peacable", King of England (959-975) -cr Bath Abbey 11.5.973, *ca 943, +Winchester 8.7.975, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset; 1m: ca 961 Ethelfleda "the Fair" (+in childbirth ca 962, bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire), dau.of Ealdorman Ordmaer; 2m: ca 964/5 Elfrida (*Lydford Castle, Devon ca 945, +as a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire ca.17.11.1002, bur ther), dau.of Ordgar, Ealdorman of Devon”.1
; Per Med Lands:
     "EDGAR, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- ([943]-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1725]). Florence of Worcester records the birth of "filium…Eadgarum" to "regi Eadmundo…sua regina sancta Ælfgiva", undated but dateable to [943] from the context[1726]. "Adgar clito" subscribed a charter of King Eadred dated 953[1727], and "Eadgar frater regis" subscribed charters of King Eadwig in 955 and 956[1728]. He was elected king in 957 by the people of Mercia and Northumbria[1729], apparently supported by his grandmother and by Dunstan abbot of Glastonbury. Reuniting the kingdom on his brother's death, he succeeded in 959 as EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England. He supervised the revival of Benedictine monasticism and the reform of the English church. He was crowned in Bath Abbey 11 May 973, followed by the ceremonial submission to his rule by six British kings[1730] at Chester. The ceremony resulted in no change in the title used in charters when naming the king, who was referred to indiscriminately as "rex Anglorum", "totius Britannie telluris dominus", "totie Britannice insule basileus" or "rex totius Albionis". The reform of the coinage took place in the same year, including the introduction of a system of coin management which involved regular recall and reissue of coins usually every six years, operated through a network of 40 mint towns. The administrative sub-divisions of the shires, hundreds and wapentakes, date from Edgar's reign. King Edgar granted autonomy to the Danish eastern part of England, which came to be known as the Danelaw, with recognition of its legal and social customs. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on 8 Jul 975 of King Edgar[1731]. Simeon of Durham records the death "VIII Id Jul" in 975 of "King Eadgar" and his burial at Glastonbury[1732]. The Libellus de Anniversariis of Ramsey Monastery records the death “VIII Id Jul” of “Edgarus rex Anglie…qui dedit…terræ in Burewelle et ecclesiam de Gomicestre”[1733].
     "[m] firstly ([963], maybe repudiated[1734]) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ORDMÆR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife Ealda (bur Wilton Abbey, Wiltshire). Simeon of Durham names "Egelfled the Fair daughter of duke Ordmer" as the mother of King Eadgar's son "Eadward"[1735]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Egelfleda" and names her father[1736]. Florence of Worcester records that "Ægelfleda Candida, cognomento Eneda, Ordmæri ducis filia" was the mother of King Eadgar’s son "Eadwardum, postea regem et martyrem"[1737]. This union of King Edgar’s may have been less formal than implied by the word "marriage". This is suggested by the contrast between the epithets applied to the king's sons in a charter subscribed by two of them dated 966: Edward (presumably born from this first marriage) is described as "Eadweard eodem rege clito procreatus", while Edmund (presumably born from the king's second marriage) was "Edmundus clito legitimus prefati regis filius"[1738]. Æthelflæd was surnamed "Eneda" according to Florence of Worcester[1739].
     "m secondly (965) as her second husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, widow of ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, daughter of ORDGAR Ealdorman of Devon & his wife --- (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[1740]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[1741]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[1742]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king’s knowledge[1743]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[1744]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[1745]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[1746]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[1747]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[1748], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[1749]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[1750].
     "Mistress (1): WULFTHRYTH, daughter of --- ([945]-1000). Simeon of Durham names "the holy Wlthirtha" as the mother of King Eadgar's daughter "Eagitha"[1751]. Roger of Hoveden names her "Sancta Elfthritha"[1752]. Florence of Worcester records that "sancta Wlfthrytha" was the mother of King Eadgar’s daughter "Eadgitham"[1753]. Abbess of Wilton. King Edgar granted "Wulfthryth abbess" land at Chalke, Wiltshire by charter dated 974[1754]."
Med Lands cites:
[1725] Florence of Worcester, 975, p. 105.
[1726] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 133.
[1727] S 570.
[1728] S 582, S 583, S 584, S 593, S 597, S 666 and S 663.
[1729] Florence of Worcester, 957, p. 101.
[1730] Identified as Kenneth King of the Scots, Iago King of Gwynedd, Hywel son of Idwal [Iago's nephew], Maccus Haroldson, Dunmail King of Strathclyde, and Malcolm King of the Cumbrians [Dunmail's son].
[1731] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A, 975.
[1732] Simeon of Durham, p. 508.
[1733] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, XXV, Ex Libello de Anniversariis in Ecclesia Ramesiensi observatis, p. 566.
[1734] Weir (2002), p. 20.
[1735] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1736] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1737] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1738] S 746.
[1739] Florence of Worcester, 964, p. 103.
[1740] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[1741] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1742] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1743] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[1744] S 703.
[1745] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[1746] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140.
[1747] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[1748] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[1749] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[1750] S 904.
[1751] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[1752] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[1753] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 140.
[1754] S 799.13


; Per Genealogics:
     “Elfrida/Aelfthryth was born about 945, the daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon. Her mother was a member of the royal family of Wessex whose power lay in the west of Wessex. Ordgar was buried in Exeter and his son Ordwulf founded, or refounded, Tavistock Abbey. Elfrida was the second or third wife of Edgar 'the Peaceful', king of England. She was the first king's wife known to have been crowned and anointed as Queen of the Kingdom of England. Mother of King Aethelred II 'the Unready', she was a powerful political figure. She was linked to the murder of her stepson King Edward II 'the Martyr' and appeared as a stereotypical bad queen and evil stepmother in many medieval histories.
     “Elfrida was first married to Aethelwold, ealdorman of East Anglia, son of Aethelstan Half-King as recorded by Byrhtferth of Ramsey in his _Life of Saint Oswald of Worcester._ Later accounts, such as that preserved by William of Malmesbury, add vivid detail of unknown reliability. According to William, the beauty of Ordgar's daughter Elfrida was reported to King Edgar. Edgar, looking for a queen, sent Aethelwold, the ealdorman of East Anglia, to see Elfrida, ordering him 'to offer her marriage (to Edgar) if her beauty were really equal to report.' When she turned out just as beautiful as was said, Aethelwold married her himself and reported back to Edgar that she was quite unsuitable. Edgar was eventually told of this, and decided to repay Aethelwold's betrayal in like manner. He said that he would visit the poor woman, which alarmed Aethelwold. He asked Elfrida to make herself as unattractive as possible for the king's visit, but she did the opposite. Edgar, quite besotted with her, killed Aethelwold during a hunt. The historical record does not record the year of Aethelwold's death, let alone its manner. No children of Aethelword and Elfrida are known.
     “Edgar had two children before he married Elfrida, both of uncertain legitimacy. Edward was probably the son of Aethelflaed and Eadgifu, later known as Saint Eadgyth of Wilton, was the daughter of Wulfrida/Wulfthryth. Sound political reasons encouraged the match between Edgar, whose power base was centred in Mercia, and Elfrida, whose family were powerful in Wessex. In addition to this, and her link with the family of Aethelstan Half-King, Elfrida also appears to have been connected to the family of Aelfhere, ealdorman of Mercia. Edgar married Elfrida in either 964 or 965. In 966 Elfrida gave birth to a son who was named Edmund. In King Edgar's charter regranting privileges to New Minster, Winchester that same year, the infant Edmund is called 'clito legitimus' (legitimate aetheling), and appears before Edward in the list of witnesses. Edmund died young, about 970, but in 968 Elfrida had given birth to a second son who was called Aethelred.
     “King Edgar organised a second coronation on 11 May 973 at Bath, perhaps to bolster his claim to be ruler of all of Britain. Here Elfrida was also crowned and anointed, granting her a status higher than any recent queen. The only model of a queen's coronation was that of Judith of France, but this had taken place outside of England. In the new rite, the emphasis lay on her role as protector of religion and the nunneries in the realm. She took a close interest in the well-being of several abbeys, and as overseer of Barking Abbey she deposed and later reinstated the abbess.
     “Elfrida played a large role as _forespeca,_ or advocate, in at least seven legal cases. As such, she formed a key part of the Anglo-Saxon legal system as a mediator between the individual and the crown, which increasingly viewed its role in the courts as a symbol of its authority as protector of its subjects. Elfrida's actions as _forespeca_ were largely for the benefit of female litigants, and her role as a mediator shows the possibilities for women to have legal and political power in late Anglo-Saxon England.
     “Edgar died in 975 leaving two young sons, Edward and Aethelred. Edward was almost an adult, and his successful claim to the throne was supported by many key figures including Archbishops Dunstan and Oswald and the brother of Elfrida's first husband, Aethelwine, ealdorman of East Anglia. Supporting the unsuccessful claim of Aethelred were his mother, the queen dowager, Bishop Aethelwold of Winchester, and Aelfhere, ealdorman of Mercia.
     “On 18 March 978, while visiting Elfrida at Corfe Castle, King Edward was killed by servants of the queen, leaving the way clear for Aethelred to be installed as king. Edward was soon considered a martyr, and later medieval accounts blamed Elfrida for his murder. According to the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,_ King Edward was murdered at Corfe Castle in 978. As the king developed into a cult figure, a body of literature grew up around his murder, at first implying and then accusing his step-mother Elfrida of being responsible. The 12th century monastic chronicle the _Liber Eliensis_ went so far as to accuse her of being a witch, claiming that she had murdered not only the king, but also Abbot Brihtnoth of Ely.
     “Due to Aethelred's youth, Elfrida served as regent for her son until his coming of age in 984. By then her earlier allies Aethelwold and Aelthere had died, and Aethelred rebelled against his old advisors, preferring a group of younger nobility. She disappears from the list of charter witnesses from around 983 to 993, when she reappears in a lower position. She remained an important figure, being responsible for the care of Aethelred's children by his first wife Elgiva. Aethelred's eldest son Athelstan of Wessex prayed for the soul of the grandmother 'who brought me up' in his will in 1014.
     “Although her reputation was damaged by the murder of her stepson, Elfrida was a religious woman, taking a special interest in monastic reform when queen. In about 986 she founded Wherwell Abbey as a Benedictine nunnery, and late in life she retired there. She died at Wherwell on 17 November 1000.”.2

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.2

; This is the same person as ”Ælfthryth, wife of Edgar” at Wikipedia.3 GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ--29.

; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆLFTHRYTH (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[35]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[36]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[37]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[38]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[39]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[40]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[41]. She was crowned with her husband in 973, apparently the first recorded instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as king[42]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[43], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[44]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[45].
     "m firstly [as his second wife,] ÆTHELWOLD Ealdorman of the East Angles, son of --- (-before 964). The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelwald as husband of Ælfthryth[46].
     "m secondly ([965]) as his second wife, EDGAR "the Peaceable" King of England, son of EDMUND King of Wessex & his first wife Ælfgifu --- (943-Winchester 8 Jul 975, bur Glastonbury Abbey)."
Med Lands cites:
[35] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[36] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[37] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[38] Wright, T. (ed.) (1850) The Anglo-Norman Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar (London), lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[39] S 703.
[40] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[41] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989) II, 157, p. 140.
[42] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[43] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[44] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[45] S 904.
[46] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14, cited in PASE "Ælfthryth 8".8


; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELWOLD (-before 964, bur Ramsey, Huntingdonshire). The Chronicon Rameseiensis names "primus Æthelwoldus, secundus Alfwoldus, tertius Athelsinus, quartus Æthelwynus" as the four sons of "Æthelstan Halfkyng, quod est semirex"[58]. The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelstan as father of Æthelwine, Ælfwald, Æthelwald and Æthelwig[59]. Florence of Worcester names him and his three brothers without naming their parents[60]. Ealdorman of East Anglia 956. "Æthelwold dux" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund, Eadwig, and Edgar dated between 940 and 961[61]. In a charter of King Æthelred II, "Æthelwold" is recorded as the previous holder of land at Wylye, Wiltshire which the king then granted to Ælfgar, minister[62], although it is not certain that this was the same person. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[63]. The Genealogia Comitis Ailwini records the death in 971 of “Ethelwoldus comes, frater Ailwini” and his burial at Ramsey[64], although this date is inconsistent with his widow´s remarriage as shown below.
     "[m firstly ---. There is no proof that Æthelwold had an earlier marriage. However, Ælfthryth must have considerably younger than her husband, who was already active in the administration of the country in 940, the earliest date when his name appears in subscription lists of charters, which makes an earlier marriage probable.]
     "m [secondly] as her first husband, ÆLFTHRYTH, daughter of Ealdorman ORDGAR of Devon (Lydford Castle, Devon ([945]-Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire [999/1002], bur Wherwell Abbey). The Vita Oswaldi names Æthelwald as husband of Ælfthryth[65]. She married secondly ([965]) as his second wife, "the Peaceable" Edgar King of England. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the marriage in 965 of King Edgar and Ælfthryth, stating that she was the daughter of ealdorman Ordgar[66]. Simeon of Durham records the marriage of King Eadgar and "the daughter of Ordgar duke of Devonshire after the death of her husband Elfwold…duke of the East Angles" in 964[67]. Roger of Hoveden names her, her father and her first husband, when recording her second marriage[68]. Geoffrey Gaimar records a lengthy account of King Edgar having sent "Edelwoth" to woo "Estrueth la fille Orgar" on his behalf, and Æthelwold having married her without the king´s knowledge[69]. King Edgar granted land in Buckinghamshire to "Ælfgifu que mihi afinitate mundialis cruoris coniuncta" in 966[70]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 974[71]. William of Malmesbury recounts that King Edgar killed Ælfthryth's first husband to enable him to marry her[72]. She was crowned queen with her husband in 973, which was the first instance of the coronation of a queen in England. It was alleged that she was involved in the plot to kill her stepson so her own son could succeed as King[73]. "Ælfthryth regina" subscribed charters of King Æthelred II between 979 and 983[74], and "Ælfthryth regis mater" between 981 and 999[75]. She became a nun at Wherwell Abbey, Hampshire in [985]. Her son King Æthelred II granted privileges to Wherwell Abbey in 1002 for the benefit of her soul[76]."
Med Lands cites:
[58] Chronicon Rameseiensis, 4, p. 12.
[59] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14 and iv.13, cited in PASE "Æthelwine 2".
[60] Florence of Worcester, 992, p. 109.
[61] S 465, S 470, S 486, S 488, S 491, S 503, S 584, S 585, S 593, S 674, S 681, S 811, S 683, S 694 and S 696.
[62] S 868.
[63] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[64] Dugdale Monasticon II, Ramsey Monastery, Huntingdonshire, II, Genealogia Comitis Ailwini, p. 555.
[65] Raine, J. (ed.) (1879) Vita Oswaldi archiepiscopi Eboracensis (London), pp. 399-475, iii.14, cited in PASE "Ælfthryth 8".
[66] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 965.
[67] Simeon of Durham, p. 506.
[68] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 62.
[69] Geoffrey Gaimar, lines 3621-3911, pp. 123-33.
[70] S 703.
[71] S 725, S 746, S 766, S 779 and S 789.
[72] Malmesbury II, 157, p. 140.
[73] Malmesbury II, 162, p. 143.
[74] S 835, S 840 and S 843.
[75] S 838, S 845, S 877, S 878, S 891 and S 896.
[76] S 904.14
She was Queen consort of England between 964 and 8 July 975.3

Family 2

Edgar I "the Peaceful" (?) King of England b. c 943, d. 8 Jul 975
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfrida: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020098&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfthryth,_wife_of_Edgar. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#_ftnref29. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ordgar: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020099&tree=LEO
  7. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  8. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AelfthrythM2Edgar.
  9. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 July 2020), memorial page for Elfrida of Devon (unknown–17 Nov 1000), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10811083, citing Wherwell Abbey (Ruins), Wherwell, Test Valley Borough, Hampshire, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10811083. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  10. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  11. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-18, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B.
  14. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AethelwoldEastAngliadiedbefore964.
  15. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 468 (Chart 30).
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331075&tree=LEO
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelred II 'the Unready': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020112&tree=LEO
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#AethelredIIdied1016B.

Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon1,2

M, #4244, b. circa 920, d. 971
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited24 Dec 2020
     Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon was born circa 920.2
Ordgar (?) Ealdorman of Devon died in 971.2
     ; This is the same person as ”Ordgar” at Wikipedia.3

; Per Genealogics:
     “Ordgar was an English West County landowner notable as a presumed close advisor of Edgar 'the Peaceful', king of England, and as the father of Elfrida/Aelfthryth, the king's second or third wife and mother of Aethelred 'the Unready'. Ordgar was created an ealdorman by Edgar in 964.
     “Little is known about Ordgar. Three key sources are his name as witness on charters of King Edgar between 962 and 970, and digressions in William of Malmesbury's _Gesta pontificum Anglorum_ and in Geoffrey Gaimar's _L'Estoire des Engles_ concerned with the love affairs and marriages of his daughter Elfrida. According to Gaimar, Ordgar was the son of an ealdorman, and was a landowner in every village from Exeter to Frome. He married an unknown lady of royal birth, by whom he had his daughter Elfrida. When King Edgar sent a messenger to woo Elfrida, he found her and her father, whom she completely controlled, playing at chess, which they had learned from the Danes. The messenger, Aethelwold son of Aethelstan Half-King - a leading member of a very prominent Anglo-Saxon family - instead took Elfrida for his own, marrying her about 956. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography draws a conclusion that Ordgar was 'clearly a figure of some importance' to have secured such a match.
     “Aethelwold died in 962, and some suspicion, notably on the part of Dunstan, abbot of Glastonbury and later archbishop of Canterbury, rests on Elfrida for his death, together with the seduction of Edgar and later murder of his son Edward 'the Martyr' to pave the way for her son Aethelred to ascend the throne. Whatever the circumstances, Elfrida became Edgar's wife in 964 and in the same year Ordgar was created ealdorman. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography infers that Ordgar from this point until 970 was one of Edgar's closest advisors, by virtue of his being named on virtually all charters issued by Edgar in the period.
     “Tavistock Abbey was founded in 961 by Ordgar and completed by his son Ordulf in 981, in which year the charter of confirmation was issued by King Aethelred 'the Unready'. It was endowed with lands in Devon, Dorset and Cornwall, and became one of the richest abbeys in the west of England.
     “Ordgar died in 971 and, according to the chronicler Florence of Worcester, he was buried at Exeter.”.2

; Per Med Lands:
     "ORDGAR (-971, bur Exeter). The root "Ord-" in his name suggests a family relationship with Ordmær: maybe they were brothers. Ealdorman of Devon. "Ordgar dux" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated between 964 and 970[29], one charter dated 966 specifying that he was "Ordgarus dux Domnoniæ"[30]. Simeon of Durham records the death in 971 of "Ordgar duke of Devonshire the father-in-law of King Eadgar" and his burial at Exeter[31]. His death in 971 is recorded by Roger of Hoveden[32].
     "m ---. The name of Ordgar's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[29] S 724, S 737, S 741, S 746, S 758, S 766 and S 779.
[30] S 741.
[31] Simeon of Durham, p. 507.
[32] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 63.4


Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.2 GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 468 (Chart 30), 478-480. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ordgar: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020099&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordgar. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#_ftnref29. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfrida: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020098&tree=LEO

Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England1,2

M, #4245, b. 921, d. 26 May 946
FatherEdward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2,3,4,5,6,7 b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
MotherEadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,2,8,9,4,5,6 b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was born in 921; Genealogics says b. ca 921; Med Lands says b. 921.10,11,1,2,5,6 He married Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?), daughter of Wynflæd (?), circa 940;
His 1st wife.10,1,2,12,6,13 Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England married Aethelfleda (?) of Damerham, Queen of England, daughter of Aelfgar (?) Ealdorman in Devon, circa 946;
His 2nd wife; Her 1st husband.10,11,1,2,12,6,14
Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was buried in 946 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England.11


Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England died on 26 May 946 at Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire, England; Per Wikipedia: "Edmund was killed in a brawl with an outlaw at Pucklechurch in Gloucestershire..."10,11,1,2,5,12,6
Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England was buried after 26 May 946 at Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, co. Somerset, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     921
     DEATH     26 May 946 (aged 24–25)
     English Monarch. Born the son of Eadward I, King of Wessex and his third queen, Alfgiva. At about the age of 18, he succeeded to the title of King Eadmund I of England on October 27, 939 upon the death of his elder half brother, Aethelstan. He married Aelfgifu the following year, and with her had two sons, both of whom would rule in their own right. During his reign, the kingdom was plagued by Irish Viking raiders. He was forced to cede to them Northumbria but he succeeded in recapturing it in 944, taking advantage of factionalism among the enemy leaders. In 945 he and King Malcolm I of Scotland signed a treaty of mutual military support, ensuring safe borders and peaceful relationships with Scotland. He married a second time in early 946 to Aethelflaed. Later that year, on St Augustine's Day at Pucklechurch, South Gloucestershire, he was murdered by an outlaw, Leofa, an exiled thief, who was then himself killed. Eadmund's sons were still minors of less than five years, and so he was succeeded by his brother. He has also been nicknamed the Deed-Doer, the Just, or the Magnificent. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Edward the Elder 874–924
          Eadgifu Of Kent
     Spouse
          Aelfgith the Younger 922–944
     Siblings
          Edburga Of Winchester
          Aethelstan 895–939
          Aelfweard of Wessex 904–924
          Eadred 923–955
     Half Siblings
          Eadgifu of Wessex
          Edith of Wessex 910–946
     Children
          Eadwig 941–959
          Edgar the Peaceful 943–975
     BURIAL     Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: julia&keld
     Added: 25 Oct 2006
     Find a Grave Memorial 16315611.1,15
     ; This is the same person as ”Edmund I” at Wikipedia.12 GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.
2. The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes, Oxford, 1991 , Longford, Elizabeth. 23,24.
3. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700, 7th Edition, 1992, Weis, Frederick Lewis. 2.12


; Per Genealogics:
     “Edmund was born about 921, the son of Edward I 'the Elder', king of England, and Eadgifu. He continued the re-conquest of England from the Vikings; in 942 he won back Mercia and in 944 Northumbria. A year later he ravaged all Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm, king of Scots, on the condition that he would be his ally both by sea and land. It is said that Edmund had ill-treated Dunstan, the future saint, who was preparing to go into exile. The story goes that King Edmund was hunting a stag, which darted up through the woods to the top of Cheddar gorge. Seeing no way of escape it leapt over the cliff, followed by the baying hounds. The king saw his danger, but his horse was beyond his power to control. The wrong done to Dunstan flashed through his mind and he vowed to make amends if his life was spared. On the very edge the horse stopped short and turned aside. When the king returned home he sent for Dunstan and asked to accompany him to Glastonbury. There he sat Dunstan in the abbot's seat and bade him to rule the house he loved.
     “With his first wife Aelgifu he had two sons, Edwy and Edgar, who would be kings of England. Only Edgar is recorded as having progeny. Aelgifu died about 944, and Edmund married Aethelflaed of Damerham, but had no children by her.
     “The murder of Edmund was described by the Anglo-Saxon chronicler, William of Malmesbury, but was later embellished. A robber named Leofa, whom the king had banished for his crimes, returning totally unexpected after six years' absence, was sitting among the guests at Pucklechurch in Gloucestershire on 26 May 946. While the others were carousing, Leofa was spotted by the king alone, who leapt from the table, caught the robber by the hair and dragged him to the floor. However Leofa drew a dagger and plunged it into the breast of the king as he lay upon him. The robber was then torn limb from limb by the king's attendants who rushed in.
     “Edmund was succeeded as king by his younger brother Edred.”.12

; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “E5. [3m.] Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of England (939-946), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 29.11.939, *ca 921, +murdered at Pucklechurch, Dorset 26.5.946, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Dorset; 1m: ca 940 St.Elgiva (+Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset ca 944, bur there), her origins are unknown; 2m: ca 946 Ethelfleda (+as a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset after 975, bur there), dau.of Alfgar, Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas; all issue by 1m:”.1

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADMUND (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1694]). "Eadmundus regis frater" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated 931 and 939, under the latter also being the grantee of land at Droxford, Hampshire[1695]. He fought with his half-brother King Æthelstan at Brunanburh in 937[1696]. He succeeded his half-brother in 939 as EDMUND King of Wessex, crowned 29 Nov 939 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Olaf Guthfrithson King of Dublin invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York. In raids on northern Mercia the following year, King Olaf took Tamworth and nearby land, and under a treaty agreed with King Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. King Olaf continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees, but died before the end of 940. King Edmund regained the lost territories from Olaf's successor Olaf Sihtricson in 942. King Edmund brought Northumbria under his control in 944, expelling both Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson from York. From that time he may be regarded as king of a united England. He ravaged Strathclyde in 945. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Augustine's day 946 of King Edmund[1697]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund was killed "VII Kal Jun" in 946 and buried at Glastonbury[1698]. Florence of Worcester records that he was stabbed to death by Leof "a ruffianly thief" while attempting to defend his steward from being robbed[1699].
     "[m firstly] ([940]) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of --- & his wife Wynflæd --- (-Shaftesbury Abbey after 943). "Alfgifu concubine regis" subscribed a 943 charter of King Edmund[1700]. This reference suggests that Ælfgifu was not married to King Edmund, corroborated by another charter of the same year1704 in which his [second] wife is differentiated by the epithet "regina" and the dating of which (if accurate) suggests that the king's relationship with both "wives" was simultaneous. If this is correct, Ælfgifu's date of death cannot necessarily be assumed to be [944/46]. She was popularly reputed a saint after her death as St Elgiva[1701]. Ælfgifu was probably the daughter of Wynflæd as "Wynflæd aua mea" is named in King Edgar's grant of confirmations to Shaftesbury Abbey dated 966[1702].
     "m [secondly] (943 or before) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ÆLFGAR Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas & his wife --- (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/92], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[1703]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[1704]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey."
Med Lands cites:
[1694] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1695] S 414 and S 446.
[1696] Florence of Worcester, 938, p. 97.
[1697] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 946.
[1698] Simeon of Durham, p. 504.
[1699] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1700] S 516.
[1701] Weir (2002), p. 17.
[1702] S 776.
[1703] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946.
[1704] S 513.6


; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆTHELFLÆD (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/91], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[10]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[11]. The will of "Ælfgar" dated to [946/51] bequeaths estates at Cockfield, Ditton, Lavenham and Baythorn to "my daughter Æthelflæd", although it does not specify that she had been the queen of King Edmund[12]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey. The will of "Æthelflæd" dated to [962/91], probably after 975, bequeathed numerous estates to "ealdorman Brihtnoth and my sister", "ten hides at Wickford to my kinsman Sibriht" and an "estate at Waldingfield to my kinswoman Crawe"[13]. [The will of "Ælflæd", dated to [1000/02], includes a reference to masses for the soul of her (unnamed) sister[14]. It is not certain whether this bequest refers to Ælflæd´s known sister Æthelflæd (see above) or to another otherwise unknown sister. The other documentation quoted in this section suggests that there were only two sisters.]
     "m firstly ([946]) as his second wife, EDMUND King of Wessex, son of EDWARD King of Wessex & his third wife Eadgifu --- (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[15])."
Med Lands cites:
[10] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946.
[11] S 513.
[12] S 1483.
[13] S 1494.
[14] S 1486.
[15] Forester, T. (trans.) (1854) The Chronicles of Florence of Worcester with two continuations (London), 946, p. 99.16
He was King of Wessex and Mercia; King of England: [Ashley, pp. 475-476] EDMUND (I) THE MAGNIFICENT King of the English, 27 October 939-26 May 946. Crowned: Kingston-upon-Thames, 29 November 939. Born: c921; Died: murdered Pucklechurch, 26 May 946, aged about 24. Buried: Glastonbury Abbey. Married: (1) c940, Elgiva (d. c944/5): 3 children; (2) c946, Athelfleda dau. Alfgar, ealdorman of Wiltshire: no children. The name Eadmund in Saxon meant "protector of riches" giving an indication of Edmund's presumed role as guardian of the realm. Edmund was the half-brother of ATHELSTAN, and the first child of EDWARD THE ELDER'S third marriage. He had been raised in Athelstan's household and once old enough had accompanied Athelstan in several of his campaigns, fighting heroically at Brunanburh in 937. As Athelstan had no children, Edmund succeeded him, even though he was only eighteen. His reign began inauspiciously, as the Norse king of Dublin, OLAF GOTHFRITHSON, regarded him as a weak successor and took the opportunity to regain his family's hold on York. This he did in little over a month after Edmund's succession, followed by his army's march down into Mercia, devastating countryside and towns, including Tamworth, before they were confronted by Edmund at Leicester. A rather ineffectual siege followed from which Olaf and his chief adviser, Wulfstan, archbishop of York, escaped. Talks followed which resulted in Olaf being allowed to retain the kingship over York, as well as rule over the Danish territories in East Anglia and the Five Boroughs. The Danes were none too pleased about this, as they were enemies of the Norse. Nevertheless, Edmund managed to recover from this ignominy. After only eighteen months, Olaf died. His successor, OLAF SITRICSON, was not quite his match. Edmund undertook a lightning strike across Mercia in 942 and recovered the Danish territories. Soon after Olaf was driven out of York, and was replaced by his cousin, RAGNALL GOTHFRITHSON, who was open to discussion with Edmund and more prepared to accept Christianity. Olaf took refuge in the kingdom of Strathclyde where guerilla warfare now existed between the Norse factions. Edmund took this as an opportunity to resolve the problem once and for all. In 944 he led an army into northern Britain. In the battle in York Ragnall was killed and York came back under Saxon control. The following year the army marched on Strathclyde. Olaf was driven out and back to Ireland. The king DONALD was also ejected, and Edmund conquered all of the Norse lands in Cumbria. These he handed to the new Scots king MALCOLM (I) on the basis that he would remain faithful to Edmund and not support the Norse.
From an ignominious start, Edmund's reign now looked highly successful. He had regained the territories that he had lost and was recognized as overlord by all the native kings. At twenty-four he should have been set for an auspicious reign, but then tragedy struck. In May 946 Edmund was celebrating the feast of St Augustine at Pucklechurch, north of Bath. During the feast he recognized a thief called Leofa whom Edmund had exiled six years earlier. Edmund asked his steward to arrest the man but a fight followed in which Edmund intervened and was stabbed. He soon died of his wounds. Edmund had two infant sons, EDWY and EDGAR, both of whom would become kings, but he was succeeded by his brother EADRED. between 27 October 939 and 26 May 946.17,18,10,11,2

Family 1

Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) b. c 922, d. 18 May 944
Children

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund I 'the Magnificent': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020087&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946.
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  9. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  10. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  11. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  12. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_I. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Aelgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020088&tree=LEO
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Aethelflaed of Damerham: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020089&tree=LEO
  15. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 July 2020), memorial page for Eadmund I the Elder (921–26 May 946), Find a Grave Memorial no. 16315611, citing Glastonbury Abbey, Glastonbury, Mendip District, Somerset, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/16315611
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#Aethelflaeddied975.
  17. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-17, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  18. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-16.
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B.

Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?)1

F, #4246, b. circa 922, d. 18 May 944
MotherWynflæd (?)2,3,4
ReferenceGAV29 EDV29
Last Edited11 Jul 2020
     Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) was born circa 922.3 She married Edmund I "The Magnificent" (?) King of England, son of Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex and Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent, circa 940;
His 1st wife.1,5,6,7,8,3
Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) died on 18 May 944 at Shaftesbury Abbey, England; buried there.9,1,10,5,6,3
Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) was buried after 18 May 944 at Shaftesbury Abbey, Shaftesbury, North Dorset District, Dorsetshire, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     922
     DEATH     18 May 944 (aged 21–22)
     English Monarch. She was the Queen Consort of King Edmund the Magnificent. Also known as Elgifu, Aelfrith, or Elgiva, she married the king around 940 AD, and gave birth to two future kings, Edwig the Fair and Edgar the Peaceful. Little exists of her life, but she was known be pious and generous, and she was a great benefactress of Shaftesbury Abbey, where her mother, Winflaeda, had been a lay sister. It is unknown what ailment she suffered, but Aelfgith died before the king, around age 22. Over the years many claimed to have been healed at her graveside, and she has been revered as a saint. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Spouse
          Eadmund I the Elder 921–946
     Children
          Edgar the Peaceful 943–975
     BURIAL     Shaftesbury Abbey (Ruins), Shaftesbury, North Dorset District, Dorset, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 15 Apr 2005
     Find a Grave Memorial 10791630.11
     ; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1): “E5. [3m.] Edmund I "the Magnificent", King of England (939-946), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 29.11.939, *ca 921, +murdered at Pucklechurch, Dorset 26.5.946, bur Glastonbury Abbey, Dorset; 1m: ca 940 St.Elgiva (+Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset ca 944, bur there), her origins are unknown; 2m: ca 946 Ethelfleda (+as a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey, Dorset after 975, bur there), dau.of Alfgar, Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas; all issue by 1m:”.5

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADMUND (921-murdered Pucklechurch, Gloucestershire 26 May 946, bur Glastonbury Abbey[1694]). "Eadmundus regis frater" subscribed charters of King Æthelstan dated 931 and 939, under the latter also being the grantee of land at Droxford, Hampshire[1695]. He fought with his half-brother King Æthelstan at Brunanburh in 937[1696]. He succeeded his half-brother in 939 as EDMUND King of Wessex, crowned 29 Nov 939 at Kingston-upon-Thames. Olaf Guthfrithson King of Dublin invaded England in 939 and by the end of that year had occupied York. In raids on northern Mercia the following year, King Olaf took Tamworth and nearby land, and under a treaty agreed with King Edmund took the whole of modern Leicestershire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. King Olaf continued by invading Northumbria over the Tees, but died before the end of 940. King Edmund regained the lost territories from Olaf's successor Olaf Sihtricson in 942. King Edmund brought Northumbria under his control in 944, expelling both Olaf Sihtricson and Rægnald Guthfrithson from York. From that time he may be regarded as king of a united England. He ravaged Strathclyde in 945. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death on St Augustine's day 946 of King Edmund[1697]. Simeon of Durham records that King Edmund was killed "VII Kal Jun" in 946 and buried at Glastonbury[1698]. Florence of Worcester records that he was stabbed to death by Leof "a ruffianly thief" while attempting to defend his steward from being robbed[1699].
     "[m firstly] ([940]) ÆLFGIFU, daughter of --- & his wife Wynflæd --- (-Shaftesbury Abbey after 943). "Alfgifu concubine regis" subscribed a 943 charter of King Edmund[1700]. This reference suggests that Ælfgifu was not married to King Edmund, corroborated by another charter of the same year1704 in which his [second] wife is differentiated by the epithet "regina" and the dating of which (if accurate) suggests that the king's relationship with both "wives" was simultaneous. If this is correct, Ælfgifu's date of death cannot necessarily be assumed to be [944/46]. She was popularly reputed a saint after her death as St Elgiva[1701]. Ælfgifu was probably the daughter of Wynflæd as "Wynflæd aua mea" is named in King Edgar's grant of confirmations to Shaftesbury Abbey dated 966[1702].
     "m [secondly] (943 or before) ÆTHELFLÆD, daughter of ÆLFGAR Ealdorman of the Wilsaetas & his wife --- (Damerham, Wiltshire ----Shaftesbury Abbey [after 975/92], bur Shaftesbury Abbey). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle names "Æthelflæd of Damerham, daughter of ealdorman Ælfgar" as queen of King Edmund in 946[1703]. "Eadmundus rex" granted "Æthelflæd regina sua" lands in Hampshire and Dorset by charter dated 943[1704]. She became a nun at Shaftesbury Abbey."
Med Lands cites:
[1694] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1695] S 414 and S 446.
[1696] Florence of Worcester, 938, p. 97.
[1697] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A and D, 946.
[1698] Simeon of Durham, p. 504.
[1699] Florence of Worcester, 946, p. 99.
[1700] S 516.
[1701] Weir (2002), p. 17.
[1702] S 776.
[1703] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D 946.
[1704] S 513.8


; Per Genealogics:
     “Aelgifu was the first wife of Edmund I 'the Magnificent', king of England, son of Edward I 'the Elder', king of England, and his wife Eadgifu of Kent. She and Edmund had two sons, Edwy and Edgar, who would have progeny and be kings of England.
     “Her mother appears to have been an associate of Shaftesbury Abbey called Wynflaed. The vital clue comes from a charter of King Edgar, in which he confirmed the grant of an estate at Uppidelen (Piddletrenthide, Dorset) made by his grandmother _(Ava)_ Wynflaed to Shaftesbury. She may well be the nun or vowess _(religiosa femina)_ of this name in a charter dated 942 and preserved in the abbey's chartulary. It records that she received and retrieved from King Edmund a handful of estates in Dorset, namely Cheselbourne and Winterbourne Tomson, which somehow ended up in the possession of the community.
     “The sources do not record the date of Aelgifu's marriage to Edmund. The eldest son Edwy, who had barely reached majority on his accession in 955, may have been born around 940, which gives us only a very rough terminus ante quem for the betrothal. Although as the mother of two future kings, Aelgifu proved to be an important royal bed companion, there is no strictly contemporary evidence that she was ever consecrated as queen. Likewise, her formal position at court appears to have been relatively insignificant, overshadowed as it was by the queen mother Eadgifu of Kent. In the single extant document witnessed by her, a Kentish charter datable between 942 and 944, she subscribes as the king's concubine _(concubina regis),_ with a place assigned to her between the bishops and ealdormen. By comparison, Eadgifu subscribes higher up in the witness list as _mater regi,_ after her sons Edwy and Edgar but before the archbishops and bishops. It is only towards the end of the 10th century that Aethelweard the Chronicler styles her queen _(regina),_ but this may be a retrospective honour at a time when her cult was well established at Shaftesbury.
     “Much of Aelgifu's claim to fame derives from her association with Shaftesbury. Her patronage of the community is suggested by a charter of King Aethelred, dated 984, according to which the abbey exchanged with King Edmund the large estate of Tisbury (Wiltshire) for Butticanlea (unidentified). Aelgifu received it from her husband and intended to bequeath it back to the nunnery, but such had not yet come to pass (her son Edwy demanded that Butticanlea be returned to the royal family first).
     “Aelgifu predeceased her husband in 944. Her body was buried and enshrined at the nunnery. She was venerated as a saint soon after her burial at Shaftesbury. Aethelward reports that many miracles had taken place at her tomb up to his day, and these were apparently attracting some local attention. Aelgifu is styled a saint (Sancte Aelgife) in the D-text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (mid-11th century) at the point where it specifies Edwy's and Edgar's royal parentage.”.3

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.3 Saint Aelfgifu (Elgiva) (?) was also known as St. Elgiva.12

; This is the same person as ”Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury” at Wikipedia.13 GAV-29 EDV-29 GKJ-30.

Citations

  1. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  2. [S1836] John P. Ravilious, "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004: "Re: Wynflaed, great-grandmother of Æthelræd II of England"," e-mail message from e-mail address (unknown address) to e-mail address, 14 Nov 2004. Hereinafter cited as "Ravilious email 14 Nov 2004."
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Aelgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020088&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Wynflaed: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00451147&tree=LEO
  5. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  6. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edmund_I. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-15.
  10. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 473 (Chart 31), 475-476. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 July 2020), memorial page for Aelfgith the Younger (922–18 May 944), Find a Grave Memorial no. 10791630, citing Shaftesbury Abbey (Ruins), Shaftesbury, North Dorset District, Dorset, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/10791630. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S1373] The Official Site of the British Monarchy, online http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page1.asp, http://www.royal.gov.uk/files/pdf/wessex.pdf "Kings of Wessex and England: 802-1066". Hereinafter cited as British Monarchy Site.
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%86lfgifu_of_Shaftesbury
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edgar 'the Peaceful': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020095&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edgardied975B.

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex1,2,3

M, #4247, b. between 871 and 872, d. 17 July 924
FatherAlfred "the Great" (?) King of England2,4,5,3,6,7,8 b. bt 099 - 099, d. 26 Oct 899
MotherEalhswith (?) of Mercia2,9,4,5,3,10,7 b. bt 850 - 855, d. bt 5 Dec 904 - 905
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited5 Sep 2020
     Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was born between 871 and 872 at Dorsetshire, England;
Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says b. ca 871/2
per The Henry Project: "Date of birth: say ca. 872.
Place of birth: Unknown.
Eadweard was the second surviving child of a marriage which occurred in 868, according to Asser [Asser, c. 29 (pp. 23-4)]. Thus, the given estimate should not be off by much."
Find A Grave says b. 874. Genealogics says b ca 871.11,2,12,5,3 He married Ecgwynn (?) circa 893; Genealogics says this was a "Union"; Wikipepedia says his 1st wife.2,5,4,3 Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex married Elfleda|Aelflaed (?), daughter of Aethelhelm (?) Ealdorman of Wiltshire and Aethelglyth/Aelswitha (?) of Mercia, circa 900;
His 2nd wife.13,2,5,14,4,3 Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex married Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent, daughter of Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent, in 919;
His 3rd wife. Med Lands says m. 920.15,2,16,17,14,5,3
Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex died on 17 July 924 at Farndon-on-Dee, Cheshire, England.15,11,2,5,3
Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was buried after 17 July 924 at Hyde, Winchester, City of Winchester, co. Hampshire, England,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     874, Dorset, England
     DEATH     17 Jul 924 (aged 49–50), Farndon, Cheshire West and Chester Unitary Authority, Cheshire, England
     King of Wessex. Born at Wantage Dorset, the second son of Aelfred, King of Wessex, known as "the Great," and Eahlwith, Princess of Mercia. He succeeded to the title of King of Wessex and Mercia in October 899; He was crowned King of Wessex and Mercia in May 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames, London. During his reign he and his sister, Ethelfleda of Mercia, fought constantly the influxes of the Danes. In 914, he secured the release of the Bishop of Llandaff who had been captured in a raid, after which, the princes of Wales pledged their perpetual allegiance to him. Eadward doubled the size of the kingdom during his reign. He married three times, first to Ecgwyn with whom he had at least three children, including Aethelstan. His second wife was Aelflaed with whom he had at least ten children including King Aelfwerd. He married a third time to Eadgifu, with whom he had at least four children including Kings Eadred and Eadmund. Bio by: Iola
     Family Members
     Parents
          Alfred the Great 849–899
          Ealhswith of Gaini 852–902
     Spouses
          Eadgifu Of Kent
          Ælfflæd of Wiltshire
     Siblings
          Æthelflæd 869–918
     Half Siblings
          Ælfthryth of Wessex Countess De Flanders 875–929
     Children
          Eadgifu of Wessex
          Edburga Of Winchester
          Aethelstan 895–939
          Aelfweard of Wessex 904–924
          Edith of Wessex 910–946
          Eadmund I the Elder 921–946
          Eadred 923–955
     BURIAL     Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Added: 17 May 2001
     Find a Grave Memorial 22392.2,18,19
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Edward was born about 871, the son of Alfred 'the Great', king of England and Ealswith. In 917 the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ recorded: 'Many people who had been under the rule of the Danes both in East Anglia and in Essex submitted to him; and all the army in East Anglia swore agreement with him, that they would agree to all that he would, and would keep peace with all with whom the king wishes to keep peace, both at sea and on land.'
     "Overshadowed by his father Alfred and upstaged by his son Athelstan, it was Edward who reconquered much of England from the Danes (909-919), established an administration for the kingdom of England, and secured the allegiance of Danes, Scots, Britons and English. Using Alfred's methods and in alliance with Mercia, he spread English influence and control. The Danes of Northumbria were defeated at Tettenhall (in Staffordshire) in 910, the Viking kingdom of York acknowledged his power in 918, and most Welsh kings submitted to him. In 921 the submission of Viking York and Northumbria as well as the kings of Strathclyde and the Scots gave his kingdom primacy in the British Isles.
     "Edward was a patient planner, a systematic organiser, and a bold soldier; by the time he died (at Farndon-on-Dee on 17 July 925) he had completed the New Minster at Winchester where he himself was buried. Though Edward had married twice, his eldest son and successor Athelstan was the son of a mistress."5

Reference: Genealogics cites:
     1. The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. I 6
     2. The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, Oxford, 1988, Cannon, John and Griffiths, Ralph. 49 biography
     3. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to America bef.1700, 7th Edition, 1992, Weis, Frederick Lewis. 2.5

; This is the same person as ”Edward the Elder” at Wikipedia.14 Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex was also known as Eadweard "the Elder" (?) King of England.18,8 GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31.

; This is the same person as ”Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder"” at The Henry Project.3

; Per Genealogy.EU: "Edward "the Elder", King of Wessex (899-924), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 31.5/8.6.900, *ca 871/2, +Farndon-on-Dee 17.7.924, bur Winchester Cathedral; 1m: Egwina (+ca 901/2), dau.of a Wessex nobleman; 2m: ca 901/2 Elfleda (+920, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ealdorman Ethelhelm; 3m: ca 920 Edgiva (*ca 905, +25.8.968, bur Canterbury Cathedral), dau.of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent."2

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADWEARD, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral[1623]). "Eadwardum" is named by Roger of Hoveden as the younger of King Alfred's sons by Queen Ealswith[1624]. "Edward/Eadweard filius regis" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 871 and 892 (two)[1625]. He defeated the Danes at Fareham 893. "Eadweard rex" subscribed a charter of King Alfred dated 898[1626], implying that he was crowned in the lifetime of his father. He succeeded his father in 899 as EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, crowned 31 May or 9 Jun 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames. He was faced soon after by the rebellion of his first cousin Æthelwold, son of Æthelred I King of Wessex, whom he finally defeated at the battle of the Holm in [902/05]. King Edward attacked the Danes in Northumbria in 909 and forced them to accept peace on his terms. The Danes countered by raiding Mercia as far as the Bristol Avon, but Edward defeated them at Tettenhall 5 Aug 910. In 911, Edward occupied London and Oxford, and in Summer 912 he attacked the Danes in Essex. King Edward continued northwards in 915, occupying Bedford. Edward began a major offensive against the Danes in the Midlands in 917, helped by the Mercian troops of his sister Æthelflæd. After his sister's death in 918, King Edward seized Tamworth to ensure the loyalty of Mercia, but left his niece Ælfwynn in nominal authority in Mercia until the winter of 919 when he had her taken to Wessex, marking the final integration of Mercia into Wessex. This was followed by the submission to him by the Welsh kings of Gwynedd, Dyfed and the lands between Merioneth and Gower, which made King Edward overlord of major parts of Wales. Edward then turned his attention to the reconquest of the remaining Danish colonies south of the river Humber, which he completed by 920, culminating with the submission to him of Rægnald King of York, Ealdred of Bamburgh and the king and people of Strathclyde[1627]. He was suppressing a revolt in Chester when he died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Edward at Farndon-on-Dee in Mercia in 924 and his burial at Winchester[1628].
     "m firstly ([892/94]) ECGWYNN, daughter of --- (-[901/02]). Roger of Hoveden names "muliere nobilissima Egcwinna", but does not refer to her as "regina" in contrast to King Edward's third wife[1629]. Florence of Worcester says that the mother of Edward's first born son was "a woman of very noble birth named Egwina"[1630]. According to William of Malmesbury, she was "an illustrious lady" but at another point in his text calls her "a shepherd's daughter"[1631]. The Book of Hyde names "Egwynna..quædam pastoris filia" as concubine of King Eadweard[1632]. Roger of Wendover names "concubine…Egwynna" as mother of King Edward’s "filium…primogenitum Ethelstanum"[1633]. The accession of her son King Æthelstan in 924 was challenged apparently on the grounds that he was "born of a concubine"[1634]. However, Æthelstan is named ahead of his half-brother Ælfweard in the list of subscribers in two charters of their father[1635], indicating his seniority and presumably implying the legitimacy of his parents' union.
     "m secondly (901 or before) ÆLFLÆD, daughter of ealdorman ÆTHELHELM & his wife Ælswitha --- (-920, bur Winchester Cathedral[1636]). "Elffled coniux regis" subscribed a 901 charter of King Edward[1637]. The Book of Hyde names "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" as first wife of King Eadweard[1638]. Roger of Wendover calls her "secunda regina sua…Alfleda, Elfelmi comitis filia"[1639].
     "m thirdly (920) EADGIFU, daughter of SIGEHELM Lord of Meopham, Cooling and Lenham in Kent & his wife --- (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral). "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953[1640]. Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle[1641]. King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945[1642]. King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953[1643]. She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property. "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966[1644]."
Med Lands cites:
[1624] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41.
[1625] S 356, S 348 and S 355.
[1626] S 350.
[1627] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
[1628] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 924.
[1629] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 51.
[1630] Florence of Worcester, 901, p. 86.
[1631] Malmesbury II, 126, p. 109, and Malmesbury II, 139, pp. 122-3.
[1632] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 111.
[1633] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368.
[1634] Malmesbury II, 131, p. 113, though the chronicler is clearly sceptical about the claim.
[1635] S 375 and S 378.
[1636] According to Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, Ælfleda was buried at Wilton Abbey.
[1637] S 363.
[1638] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 112.
[1639] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368.
[1640] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562.
[1641] S 959.
[1642] S 517.
[1643] S 562.
[1644] S 811 and S 746.4


; Per Med Lands:
     "EADGIFU (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral). Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle[603]. "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953[604]. King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945[605]. King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953[606]. She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property. "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966[607].
     "m (920) as his third wife, EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). "
Med Lands cites:
[603] S 959.
[604] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562.
[605] S 517.
[606] S 562.
[607] S 811 and S 746.20


; Per Med Lands:
     "ÆLFLÆD (-920, bur Winchester Cathedral[597]). The Book of Hyde names "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" as first wife of King Eadweard[598]. Roger of Wendover calls her "secunda regina sua…Alfleda, Elfelmi comitis filia"[599]. "Elffled coniux regis" subscribed a 901 charter of King Edward[600].
     "m (901 or before) as his second wife, EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral)."
Med Lands cites:
[597] According to Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, Ælfleda was buried at Wilton Abbey.
[598] Rerum Britannicarum medii ævi scriptores (1866) Liber Monasterii de Hyda 455-1023 (London) XIV.4, p. 112.
[599] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368.
[600] S 363.21

; According to The Henry Project: "Ælfred. (probably a mistake for Ælfweard)
     "The Book of Hyde mentions a supposed son by Ecgwynn who was crowned in his father's lifetime ["Inclitus igitur ac devotissimus rex Edwardus, dictus Senior, sex habuit filios, quorum quatuor extiterunt sceptrigeri. Ex nobili foemina, Egwyna nomine, Athelstanum habuit et Elfredum. Elfredus, quem pater præ cæteris paternali amore dilexit, ipsomet sceptrigerante, exemplo beati David regis, qui Domino super omnia gratias egit eo quod meruit seipso superstite filium suum in solio paterno residentem videre, inunctus in regem ac coronatus est. Sed idem Elfredus non multo post superfuit. Moriebatur enim antequam pater suus naturæ functus sit munere." Lib. Monast. Hyde, 113]. He does not appear in any of the earlier sources, and is probably a mistake for Ælfweard. As was pointed out by Todd Farmerie, there is a charter supposedly signed by an "Elfred, filius regis" which may explain the Book of Hyde's error [Lib. Monast. Hyde, 114-6; also #S366, Sawyer (1968), 161; Cart. Sax. 2: 251 (#598); probably a mistake for Ælfweard, cf. Lib. Monast. Hyde, 98-101; #S365, Sawyer (1968), 161; Cart. Sax. 2: 249 (#597)]."
Bibliography
** Cart. Sax. = Walter de Gray Birch, ed., Cartularium Saxonicum, 4 vols. (1885-99).
** Lib. Monast. Hyde = Edward Edwards, ed., Liber Monasterii de Hyda: a Chronicle and Chartulary of Hyde Abbey, Winchester, 455-1023 (Rolls Series 45, London, 1866).
** Sawyer (1968) = P. H. Sawyer, Anglo-Saxon Charters. An Annotated List and Bibliography (London, 1968).3 He was King of the West Saxons See attached map (image from Wikipedia - Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1088946). between 899 and 924.18,14 He was King of England between October 899 and 924.15,22,11 He was King of the Mercians between 918 and 924.18

Family 2

Ecgwynn (?) d. bt 901 - 902
Children

Family 3

Elfleda|Aelflaed (?) b. c 878, d. 918
Children

Family 4

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent b. c 903, d. 25 Aug 968
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 74, ENGLAND 16. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  6. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 1-14; p. 1.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Alfreddied899B.
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ælfred "the Great": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/aelfr000.htm
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Ealhswith: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/ealhs000.htm
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ealhswith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018647&tree=LEO
  11. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), appendix. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Edward the Elder (874–17 Jul 924), Find A Grave Memorial no. 22392, citing Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England ; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/22392/edward_the_elder. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  13. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 45-16, p. 46. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis AR-7, line 1-16, p. 2.
  16. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  17. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent
  18. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm
  19. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 9 July 2020), memorial page for Edward the Elder (874–17 Jul 924), Find a Grave Memorial no. 22392, citing Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/22392
  20. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EadgifuM3EdwardWessex.
  21. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#AelfledaMEdwardWessex.
  22. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-15.
  23. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Æthelred Mucil/Mucel: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/aethe003.htm
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, NN of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00331066&tree=LEO
  25. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#EadgythMSihtricYorkdied927.
  26. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy, Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066.
  27. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  28. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020062&tree=LEO
  30. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Eadgifudiedafter951.
  31. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, pp. 473 (Chart 31), 226.
  32. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgyth of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020085&tree=LEO
  33. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Eadgythdied946.
  34. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund I 'the Magnificent': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020087&tree=LEO
  35. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946.

Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent1,2,3

F, #4248, b. circa 903, d. 25 August 968
FatherSigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent2,4,3,5,6,7 b. c 855, d. c 13 Dec 902
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was born circa 903 at co. Kent, England.3,5 She married Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex, son of Alfred "the Great" (?) King of England and Ealhswith (?) of Mercia, in 919;
His 3rd wife. Med Lands says m. 920.8,2,3,5,9,10,11
Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent died on 25 August 968 at England; Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 1 page) says d. 25 Aug 968.8,2,3,12
Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was buried after 25 August 968 at Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, co. Kent, England,

; Fom Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     unknown, Kent, England.
     DEATH     unknown, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England
     Netherlands Genaologie Online Trees Index calls her Edgiva of Meopham with a birth of 896 in Kent, England and death of 25 Aug 968. Her father was Sigehelm of Meopham, Ealdorman of Kent. She also was the mother of Saint Edburga van Wessex.
     Family Members
     Spouse
      Edward the Elder 874–924
     Children
      Edburga Of Winchester
      Eadmund I the Elder 921–946
     BURIAL     Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England
     Created by: Brett Williams
     Added: 17 Mar 2012
     Find A Grave Memorial 86894684.2,5
     ; Per Genealogy.EU: "Edward "the Elder", King of Wessex (899-924), cr Kingston-upon-Thames 31.5/8.6.900, *ca 871/2, +Farndon-on-Dee 17.7.924, bur Winchester Cathedral; 1m: Egwina (+ca 901/2), dau.of a Wessex nobleman; 2m: ca 901/2 Elfleda (+920, bur Winchester Cathedral), dau.of Ealdorman Ethelhelm; 3m: ca 920 Edgiva (*ca 905, +25.8.968, bur Canterbury Cathedral), dau.of Sigehelm, Ealdorman of Kent."2
; Per Med Lands:
     "EADWEARD, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral[1623]). "Eadwardum" is named by Roger of Hoveden as the younger of King Alfred's sons by Queen Ealswith[1624]. "Edward/Eadweard filius regis" subscribed charters of King Alfred dated 871 and 892 (two)[1625]. He defeated the Danes at Fareham 893. "Eadweard rex" subscribed a charter of King Alfred dated 898[1626], implying that he was crowned in the lifetime of his father. He succeeded his father in 899 as EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, crowned 31 May or 9 Jun 900 at Kingston-upon-Thames. He was faced soon after by the rebellion of his first cousin Æthelwold, son of Æthelred I King of Wessex, whom he finally defeated at the battle of the Holm in [902/05]. King Edward attacked the Danes in Northumbria in 909 and forced them to accept peace on his terms. The Danes countered by raiding Mercia as far as the Bristol Avon, but Edward defeated them at Tettenhall 5 Aug 910. In 911, Edward occupied London and Oxford, and in Summer 912 he attacked the Danes in Essex. King Edward continued northwards in 915, occupying Bedford. Edward began a major offensive against the Danes in the Midlands in 917, helped by the Mercian troops of his sister Æthelflæd. After his sister's death in 918, King Edward seized Tamworth to ensure the loyalty of Mercia, but left his niece Ælfwynn in nominal authority in Mercia until the winter of 919 when he had her taken to Wessex, marking the final integration of Mercia into Wessex. This was followed by the submission to him by the Welsh kings of Gwynedd, Dyfed and the lands between Merioneth and Gower, which made King Edward overlord of major parts of Wales. Edward then turned his attention to the reconquest of the remaining Danish colonies south of the river Humber, which he completed by 920, culminating with the submission to him of Rægnald King of York, Ealdred of Bamburgh and the king and people of Strathclyde[1627]. He was suppressing a revolt in Chester when he died. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of King Edward at Farndon-on-Dee in Mercia in 924 and his burial at Winchester[1628].
     "m firstly ([892/94]) ECGWYNN, daughter of --- (-[901/02]). Roger of Hoveden names "muliere nobilissima Egcwinna", but does not refer to her as "regina" in contrast to King Edward's third wife[1629]. Florence of Worcester says that the mother of Edward's first born son was "a woman of very noble birth named Egwina"[1630]. According to William of Malmesbury, she was "an illustrious lady" but at another point in his text calls her "a shepherd's daughter"[1631]. The Book of Hyde names "Egwynna..quædam pastoris filia" as concubine of King Eadweard[1632]. Roger of Wendover names "concubine…Egwynna" as mother of King Edward’s "filium…primogenitum Ethelstanum"[1633]. The accession of her son King Æthelstan in 924 was challenged apparently on the grounds that he was "born of a concubine"[1634]. However, Æthelstan is named ahead of his half-brother Ælfweard in the list of subscribers in two charters of their father[1635], indicating his seniority and presumably implying the legitimacy of his parents' union.
     "m secondly (901 or before) ÆLFLÆD, daughter of ealdorman ÆTHELHELM & his wife Ælswitha --- (-920, bur Winchester Cathedral[1636]). "Elffled coniux regis" subscribed a 901 charter of King Edward[1637]. The Book of Hyde names "Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda" as first wife of King Eadweard[1638]. Roger of Wendover calls her "secunda regina sua…Alfleda, Elfelmi comitis filia"[1639].
     "m thirdly (920) EADGIFU, daughter of SIGEHELM Lord of Meopham, Cooling and Lenham in Kent & his wife --- (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral). "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953[1640]. Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle[1641]. King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945[1642]. King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953[1643]. She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property. "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966[1644]."
Med Lands cites:
[1624] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 41.
[1625] S 356, S 348 and S 355.
[1626] S 350.
[1627] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
[1628] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, C and D, 924.
[1629] Roger of Hoveden I, p. 51.
[1630] Florence of Worcester, 901, p. 86.
[1631] Malmesbury II, 126, p. 109, and Malmesbury II, 139, pp. 122-3.
[1632] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 111.
[1633] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368.
[1634] Malmesbury II, 131, p. 113, though the chronicler is clearly sceptical about the claim.
[1635] S 375 and S 378.
[1636] According to Malmesbury II, 126, p. 110, Ælfleda was buried at Wilton Abbey.
[1637] S 363.
[1638] Liber Monasterii de Hyda XIV.4, p. 112.
[1639] Roger of Wendover, Vol. I, p. 368.
[1640] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562.
[1641] S 959.
[1642] S 517.
[1643] S 562.
[1644] S 811 and S 746.13


; Per Genealogics:
     "Eadgifu was born in or before 903, the daughter of Sigehelm, ealdorman of Kent, who died at the Battle of Holme in 902 or 904. She became the third wife of Edward I 'the Elder', king of England, son of Alfred 'the Great', king of England, and his wife Ealswith. Eadgifu and Edward had two sons, Edmund I and Edred, and two daughters, Eadburh and Edgifu, of whom Edmund I and Edred would become kings of England, though only Edmund I would marry and have progeny. Eadburh would be venerated as St. Eadburh of Wessex. Eadgifu survived Edward by many years, dying in the reign of her grandson Edgar.
     "Eadgifu disappeared from court during the reign of her step-son, King Aethelstan, but she was prominent and influential during the reign of her two sons. As queen dowager, her position seems to have been higher than that of her daughter-in-law Aelgifu of Shaftesbury; in a Kentish charter datable between 942 and 944, Aelgifu describes herself as the king's concubine _(concubina regis),_ with a place assigned to her between the bishops and ealdormen. By comparison, Eadgifu subscribes higher up in the witness list as _mater regis,_ after her sons Edmund and Edred but before the archbishops and bishops.
     "Following the death of her younger son Edred in 955, Eadgifu was deprived of her lands by her eldest grandson, King Edwy, perhaps because she took the side of his younger brother Edgar in the struggle between them. When Edgar succeeded on Edwy's death in 959 she recovered some lands and received generous gifts from her grandson, but she never returned to her prominent position at court. She is last recorded as a witness to a charter in 966, and died on 25 August 968.
     "She was known as a supporter of saintly churchmen and a benefactor of churches."3

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973 .
190.3

; This is the same person as ”Eadgifu of Kent” at Wikipedia.14 GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-30. Eadgifu/Edgiva (?) of Kent was also known as Eadgifu.4

; Per Med Lands:
     "EADGIFU (-26 Aug 968, bur Canterbury Cathedral). Eadgifu recited her title to land at Cooling by charter dated 959 which names her father Sigelm and records that he was killed in battle[603]. "Eadgifu regis mater" subscribed charters of Kings Edmund and Eadred between 940 and 953[604]. King Eadred granted land in Berkshire to "Aedgyfu regis mater" in 945[605]. King Eadred granted land at Felpham, Sussex to "Eadgifu famula dei matri mee" by charter dated 953[606]. She appears to have supported her grandson Edgar against Eadwig in 957, the latter depriving her of her property. "Eadgifu hil ealdan moder/predicti regis aua" subscribed charters of King Edgar dated [959/63] and 966[607].
     "m (920) as his third wife, EDWARD "the Elder" King of Wessex, son of ALFRED King of Wessex & his wife Ealhswith ([872]-Farndon-on-Dee near Chester 17 Jul 924, bur Winchester Cathedral). "
Med Lands cites:
[603] S 959.
[604] S 465, S 470, S 477, S 487, S 488, S 516, S 491, S 519, S 558 and S 562.
[605] S 517.
[606] S 562.
[607] S 811 and S 746.6

Family

Edward I "the Elder" (?) King of Wessex b. bt 871 - 872, d. 17 Jul 924
Children

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  5. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EadgifuM3EdwardWessex. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Sigehelm: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/sigeh000.htm
  8. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 1-16, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Elder. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward I 'the Elder': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020066&tree=LEO
  11. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/edwar001.htm
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 9 July 2020), memorial page for Edward the Elder (874–17 Jul 924), Find a Grave Memorial no. 22392, citing Hyde Abbey, Winchester, City of Winchester, Hampshire, England; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/22392
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edwarddied924B.
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadgifu_of_Kent
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edmund I 'the Magnificent': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020087&tree=LEO
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Edmunddied946.
  17. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix: Kings of Wessex and England 802-1066. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.

Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent1,2

M, #4249, b. circa 855, d. circa 13 December 902
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent was born circa 855.3
Sigehelm (?) Earldorman of Kent died circa 13 December 902 at Battle of Holme, East Anglia, England; Per The henry Project:


Med Lands says d. 902/904     "Sigehelm was killed at the battle at the Holme, with sources disagreeing about the year ["... & þær wearð Sigulf ealdormon ofslægen, & Sigelm ealdorman... & Sigebreht Sigulfes sunu..." ASC(A) s.a. 905 (orig. 904); "& þy ilcan gere wæs þ gefeoht æt þam Holme Cantwara & þara Deniscra." ASC(C) s.a. 902 (Mercian Register)]. Angus argued that the battle was fought between 24 September and 25 December 902, and perhaps on 12 December 902, but the argument is not conclusive [Angus (1938), 204-6]. A 961 deed of his daughter shows clearly that the Sigehelm who died at the Battle of Holme was the same person as Sigehelm, father of queen Eadgifu [Cart. Sax. 3: 284-7 (#1064-5); see the page of Eadgifu for more details]."
Per Wikipedia: "The Battle of the Holme took place in East Anglia on 13 December 902 between the Anglo-Saxon men of Kent and the East Anglian Danes.[1] Its location is unknown but may have been Holme in Huntingdonshire (now part of Cambridgeshire).[2]
Following the death of Alfred the Great in 899, his son Edward the Elder became king, but his cousin Æthelwold, the son of Alfred's elder brother, King Æthelred, claimed the throne. His bid was unsuccessful, and he fled to the Northumbrian Danes, who, according to one version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, accepted him as king.[3] In 902 Æthelwold came with a fleet to Essex and the following year he persuaded the East Anglian Danes to attack Mercia and north Wessex. Edward retaliated by ravaging East Anglia and the Danish army was forced to return to defend its own territory. Edward then retreated, but the men of Kent disobeyed the order to retire, and they met the Danes at the battle of the Holme.
The course of the battle is unknown, but the Danes appear to have won as according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle they "kept the place of slaughter".[4] However, they suffered heavy losses including Æthelwold, Eohric, probably the Danish king of East Anglia, Brihtsige, son of the ætheling Beornoth, and two holds, Ysopa and Oscetel. The battle thus ended Æthelwold's Revolt.[3] Kentish losses included Sigehelm, father of Edward the Elder's third wife, Eadgifu of Kent.[5] The West Saxon chronicler who gave the fullest account of the battle was at pains to explain why Edward and the rest of the English were not present, as if this had been a subject of criticism.[2]
Sources
** Campbell, James (2001). "What is not known about the reign of Edward the Elder". In Higham, N. J; Hill, D. H. eds. Edward the Elder 899-924. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21497-1.
** Keynes, Simon (1999). "England, c.900-1016". In Reuter, Timothy. The New Cambridge Medieval History 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 36447 7.
** Miller, Sean (2004). "Edward (called Edward the Elder) (870s?–924), king of the Anglo-Saxons". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/8514. Retrieved 16 July 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
** Stafford, Pauline (2004). "Eadgifu (b. in or before 904, d. in or after 966), queen of the Anglo-Saxons, consort of Edward the Elder". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/52307. Retrieved 10 June 2012. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
** Stenton, Frank M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5."4,5,2
     Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 190.
2. Henry Project , Baldwin, Stewart. biographical details.3


; Per Genealogics:
     “Sigehelm appears as _minister_ of the king in an 875 charter involving land in Kent. He appears as _dux_ in an 889 charter also involving land in Kent. In 898, King Alfred granted him land in Fearnleag (Farleigh), this land was later held by his daughter Eadgifu. While we have no direct proof that all these records involve the same person, it is very likely that they do, because Sigehelm was not a very common name, and the records can all be localised in Kent. He may have been the Sigehelm who took the alms of Alfred to Rome and 'India' in 882. Sigehelm was killed at the Battle of Holme, which took place in 902 or 904.”.3

; Per Med Lands: "SIGEHELM (-killed in battle before 959). Lord of Meopham, Cooling and Lenham in Kent. m ---. The name of Sigehelm's wife is not known."5

; This is the same person as ”Sigehelm” at The Henry Project.2 GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 473 (Chart 31). Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Sigehelm: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/sigeh000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Sigehelm: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020083&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, Battle of the Holme: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Holme. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20nobility.htm#EadgifuM3EdwardWessex. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Eadweard (Edward) "the Elder": http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/edwar001.htm
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Eadgifu: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020082&tree=LEO
  9. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find A Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com : accessed 05 October 2019), memorial page for Eadgifu Of Kent (unknown–unknown), Find A Grave Memorial no. 86894684, citing Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury, City of Canterbury, Kent, England ; Maintained by Brett Williams (contributor 47234529), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/86894684/eadgifu-of_kent. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.

Maelmuir (?) of Scotland1,2,3,4

M, #4250, b. circa 1035
FatherDuncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland5,6,7,8,9,4,3 b. c 1001, d. 14 Aug 1040
MotherSuthen (?) of Northumbria6,10,4,3 b. 1009, d. 1040
ReferenceGAV30 EDV27
Last Edited16 Dec 2020
     Maelmuir (?) of Scotland was born circa 1035.6
     ; Per Med Lands (Entry #1):
     "[MAELMUIRE [Melmare] . According to the Complete Peerage, Melmare, who it says was the father of Madach Earl of Atholl, was the son of Duncan I King of Scotland & his wife ---, but it cites no corresponding primary source[304]. The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified. The only primary source reference to Maelmuire which has so far been found is the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer, which is witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[305]. From the names of the earls of Fife and Angus, it is unlikely that this document can be dated to before 1135 at the earliest. If that is correct, it is evidently impossible from a chronological point of view that Maelmuire could have been the son of King Duncan I.]"
Med Lands cites:
[304] CP I 304.
[305] Early Scottish Charters CCXXIV, p. 181.


Per Med Lands (Entry #2):
     "MAELMUIRE [Melmare] (-after [1135]). According to the Complete Peerage, Melmare, who it says was the father of Madach Earl of Atholl, was Maelmuire, son of Duncan I King of Scotland & his wife ---, but it cites no corresponding primary source[145]. The primary source which confirms that this is correct has not yet been identified. The only primary source reference to Maelmuire which has so far been found is the undated charter under which David I King of Scotland granted protection to the clerics of Deer, which is witnessed by "Donchado comite de Fib et Malmori d’Athotla et Ggillebrite comite d’Engus et Ghgillcomded Mac Aed…"[146]. From the names of the earls of Fife and Angus, it is unlikely that this document can be dated to before 1135 at the earliest. If that is correct, it is evidently impossible from a chronological point of view that Maelmuire could have been the son of King Duncan I."
Med Lands cites:
[145] CP I 304.
[146] Early Scottish Charters CCXXIV, p. 181.11,12


Reference: Genealogics cites: The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Edinburgh, 1977, Paget, Gerald. I 153.3

; Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): “B3. Maelmuire, *ca 1035, +unknown; m.NN”.2

; This is the same person as ”Máel Muire, Earl of Atholl” at Wikipedia.13 Maelmuir (?) of Scotland was also known as Melmare.5 GAV-30 EDV-27.

; Per The Henry Project: "Possible additional son: MALE Máel Muire of Atholl. According to the Orkneyinga Saga, earl Madach (Maddad) of Atholl [see CP 1: 304] was the son of Máel Muire (Melmar), brother of Malcolm Canmore [OrkS 63 (p. 108)]. While the relationship is not impossible, the long chronology suggests caution. [See ESSH 2: 140, 182]"8

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 396. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Melmare of Scotland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022612&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIdied1040B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Donnchad (Duncan) I mac Crínáin: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/dunca001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Donnchad mac Crináin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022594&tree=LEO
  10. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Suthen (of Northumbria): https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022595&tree=LEO
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Entry #1: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIdied1040B
  12. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, Entry #2: http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTTISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Maelmuire
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A1el_Muire,_Earl_of_Atholl. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Madach: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00232024&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTTISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Maelmuire

Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland1,2,3,4,5

F, #4251, b. circa 1045, d. 16 November 1093
FatherEdward "The Exile" (?) the Aetheling6,3,7,8,4,5 b. 1016, d. 1057
MotherAgatha (?) of Poland7,3,9,4,5 b. c 1014, d. c 1070
ReferenceGAV24 EDV24
Last Edited19 Dec 2020
     Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland was born circa 1045 at Hungary; Genealogics says b. ca 1045; Med Lands says b. 1046/63.6,2,7,3,4,5 She married Máel-Coluim (Malcolm III) mac Donnchada "Canmore") (?) King of Scotland (Alba), son of Duncan I "the Gracious" (Donnchad mac Crínáin) (?) King of Scotland and Suthen (?) of Northumbria, between 1068 and 1069 at Dunfermline, Fifeshire, Scotland; Genealogics says m. ca 1069; Weis says m. 1068/9.1,6,3,10,11,12,13,4,5
Saint Margaret (?) Queen of Scotland died on 16 November 1093 at Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Mid-Lothian, Scotland.3,6,7,4,5
     ; Per Genealogics:
     “Margaret was born about 1045 in Hungary, the daughter of Edward Atheling and his wife Agatha. She later came to England, but after the Norman Conquest she fled with her mother, sister and brother from Northumberland to Scotland, where they placed themselves under the protection of King Malcolm. The _Worcester Manuscript_ relates the following:
     “'Then the king Malcolm began to desire Margaret as wife, but her brother and his men opposed it for a long time, and also she herself refused, and declared that she would not have him, nor any, if the Graciousness on high would grant her that with bodily heart she might please the mighty Lord with pure continence in maidenhood in this short life.
     “'The king eagerly pressed her brother until he said 'yes' to it, also he dared not otherwise, because they had come into his power. So it came to pass as provided by God, and it could not be otherwise, just as he himself says in his gospel that even one sparrow cannot fall into a snare without his providence.
     “'The king then received her, although it was against her will; and her customs pleased him, and he thanked God, who so powerfully gave him such a consort, and reflected wisely, since he was very prudent, and turned himself toward God, and despised every impurity.'
     “Young, lovely, vivacious, learned and pious, Margaret had won the heart of the Scottish king, Malcolm Canmore, and they were married. They had eight children of whom four, including two future kings of the Scots, would have progeny. She did much to civilise the northern realm and still more to assimilate the old Celtic church to the rest of Christendom. In 1251 she was canonised by Pope Innocent IV.”.4

; Per Catholic Enc.:
     "St. Margaret of Scotland - Born about 1045, died 16 Nov., 1092, was a daughter of Edward "Outremere", or "the Exile", by Agatha, kinswoman of Gisela, the wife of St. Stephen of Hungary. She was the granddaughter of Edmund Ironside. A constant tradition asserts that Margaret's father and his brother Edmund were sent to Hungary for safety during the reign of Canute, but no record of the fact has been found in that country. The date of Margaret's birth cannot be ascertained with accuracy, but it must have been between the years 1038, when St. Stephen died, and 1057, when her father returned to England. It appears that Margaret came with him on that occasion and, on his death and the conquest of England by the Normans, her mother Agatha decided to return to the Continent. A storm however drove their ship to Scotland, where Malcolm III received the party under his protection, subsequently taking Margaret to wife. This event had been delayed for a while by Margaret's desire to entire religion, but it took place some time between 1067 and 1070.
     "In her position as queen, all Margaret's great influence was thrown into the cause of religion and piety. A synod was held, and among the special reforms instituted the most important were the regulation of the Lenten fast, observance of the Easter communion, and the removal of certain abuses concerning marriage within the prohibited degrees. Her private life was given up to constant prayer and practices of piety. She founded several churches, including the Abbey of Dunfermline, built to enshrine her greatest treasure, a relic of the true Cross. Her book of the Gospels, richly adorned with jewels, which one day dropped into a river and was according to legend miraculously recovered, is now in the Bodleian library at Oxford. She foretold the day of her death, which took place at Edinburgh on 16 Nov., 1093, her body being buried before the high altar at Dunfermline.
     "In 1250 Margaret was canonized by Innocent IV, and her relics were translated on 19 June, 1259, to a new shrine, the base of which is still visible beyond the modern east wall of the restored church. At the Reformation her head passed into the possession of Mary Queen of Scots, and later was secured by the Jesuits at Douai, where it is believed to have perished during the French Revolution. According to George Conn, "De duplici statu religionis apud Scots" (Rome, 1628), the rest of the relics, together with those of Malcolm, were acquired by Philip II of Spain, and placed in two urns in the Escorial. When, however, Bishop Gillies of Edinburgh applied through Pius IX for their restoration to Scotland, they could not be found.
     "The chief authority for Margaret's life is the contemporary biography printed in "Acta SS.", II, June, 320. Its authorship has been ascribed to Turgot, the saint's confessor, a monk of Durham and later Archbishop of St. Andrews, and also to Theodoric, a somewhat obscure monk; but in spite of much controversy the point remains quite unsettled. The feast of St. Margaret is now observed by the whole Church on 10 June.
     "Acta SS., II, June, 320; CAPGRAVE, Nova Legenda Angliae (London, 1515), 225; WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY, Gesta Regum in P.L., CLXXIX, also in Rolls Series, ed. STUBBS (London, 1887-9); CHALLONER, Britannia Sancta, I (London, 1745), 358; BUTLER, Lives of the Saints, 10 June; STANTON, Menology of England and Wales (London, 1887), 544; FORBES-LEITH, Life of St. Margaret. . . (London, 1885); MADAN, The Evangelistarium of St. Margaret in Academy (1887); BELLESHEIM, History of the Catholic Church in Scotland, tr. Blair, III (Edinburgh, 1890), 241-63.
G. ROGER HUDDLESTON, Transcribed by Anita G. Gorman“.2

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family London, 1973 , Reference: 314.
2. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who came to Amercia bef.1700 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, Reference: 2.
3. The Scottish Genealogist, Quarterly Journal of the Scottish Genealogy Society.
Jun 2009 - John Ravilious.4

; This is the same person as ”” at The Henry Project.14

; This is the same person as ”Saint Margaret of Scotland” at Wikipedia.15 GAV-24 EDV-24 GKJ-25.

;      "Margaret was born around 1045 in Hungary, the daughter of the exiled English Prince Edward "the Outlaw" Atheling of the English royal house of Wessex, and a German Princess named Agatha. Margaret was raised in the court of St. Stephen, King of Hungary. In 1057 when she was about 12, Margaret and her family returned to England, where the king was St. Edward the Confessor.
     "After the Norman conquest in 1066 and after her father's death in 1068, Agatha with her son and two daughters resolved to return to Hungary and embarked with that intent. Their ship was driven up the Firth of Forth to Dunfermline, where Malcolm III, king of Scotland, received them hospitably and granted them refuge. He very soon offered the whole family a permanent home with him and asked that the Princess Margaret should become his wife. Margaret, who was very devout and much impressed with the futility of earthly greatness, had very nearly determined to be a nun, but when Malcolm's request was made to Edgar, "the Childe said 'Yea,'" and Margaret was persuaded to marry the king as his second wife.
     "Malcolm III was born ca 1031 and founded the house of Canmore, which ruled Scotland for more than 200 years, and consolidated the power of the Scottish monarchy. He was the son of Duncan I, who was killed (1040) by Macbeth. Malcolm lived in exile until he defeated and killed (1057) Macbeth near Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. He succeeded to the throne in 1058, and married Margaret ca. 1068-1070.
     "Her holiness and wisdom had an impact on Malcolm, causing him to be a better ruler. Malcolm regarded his wife with holy reverence, and with most devoted love followed her advice, and guided by her he became not only more religious and conscientious but more civilized and kinglike. The king's devotion to her and her influence over him were almost unbounded. He never refused or grudged her anything, nor showed the least displeasure when she took money out of his treasury for her charities. Although he could not read, he loved her books for her sake, handling them with affectionate reverence and kissing them. Sometimes he would take away one of her favorite volumes and send for a goldsmith to ornament it with gold and gems. When this was done, he would restore it to the queen as a proof of his devotion.
     "In addition to her influence with her husband and her sons, who later succeeded their father in ruling Scotland, Margaret took a direct role in helping the people of Scotland. She devoted time and money to works of charity, assisting the poor, the aged, orphans, and the sick. She also prevented a schism between the Roman Church and the Celtic Church, which had been cut off from Rome. In addition, she introduced European culture to Scotland, and did so more successfully than the forceful introduction in England under the Normans.
     "She was as saintly and self-denying on the throne as she could have been in the cloister. She at once perceived it to be her duty to benefit and elevate the people among whom it was her destiny to live, and this she undertook with the greatest of diligence and the most earnest piety. There existed so much barbarism in the customs of the people, so many abuses in the Church, so much on all hands to reform, that she called together the native clergy and the priests who had come with her, her husband acting as interpreter, and she spoke so well and so earnestly that all were charmed with her gracious demeanor and wise counsel and adopted her suggestions.
     "Margaret is credited with the introduction of English (Roman) usages into the Scottish church. Among other improvements, Margaret introduced the observance of Sunday by abstaining from servile work, "that if anything has been done amiss during the six days it may be expiated by our prayers on the day of the Resurrection." She influenced her people to observe the forty days' fast of Lent, and to receive the Holy Sacrament on Easter day, from which they had abstained for fear of increasing their own damnation because they were sinners. On this point she said that if the Savior had intended that no sinner should receive the Holy Sacrament, He would not have given a command which, in that case, no one could obey. "We," said she, "who many days beforehand have confessed and done penance and fasted and been washed from our sins with tears and alms and absorption, approach the table of the Lord in faith on the day of His Resurrection, not to our damnation but to the remission of our sins and in salutary preparation for eternal blessedness."
     "Margaret re-founded the monastery on the Island of Iona (originally founded by Saint Columba, an Irish missionary who found the monastery in 563 in an attempt to convert the Picts). One of her first acts as queen was to build a church at Dunfermline, where she had been married. She dedicated it to the Holy Trinity. She gave it all the ornaments that a church requires, amongst them golden cups, a handsome crucifix of gold and silver enriched with gems, and vestments for the priests. Her room was never without some of these beautiful things in preparation to be offered to the Church. It was like a workshop for heavenly artisans; capes for the singers, sacerdotal vestments, stoles, altar clothes were to be seen there; some made and some in progress. The embroideries were executed by noble young ladies who were in attendance on her.
     "No man was admitted to the room, unless she allowed him to come with her. She suffered no levity, no petulance, no frivolity, no flirtation. She was so dignified in her pleasantry, so cheerful in her strictness that every one both loved and feared her. No one dared to utter a rude or profane word in her presence.
     "She did much for the secular as well as for the religious improvement of her country. She caused traders from all lands to bring their goods, and thus introduced many useful and beautiful articles, until then unknown in Scotland. She induced the natives to buy and wear garments and stuffs of various colors. She is said to have introduced the tartans that afterwards became distinctive of Scottish costume. She instituted the custom that wherever the king rode or walked he should be accompanied by an escort, but the members of this band were strictly forbidden to take anything by force from any one, or oppress any poor person. She beautified the king's house with furniture and hangings, and introduced cups and dishes of gold and silver for the royal table. All this she did, not that she was fond of worldly show, but that the Court should be more decent and less barbarous than heretofore.
     "Numbers of captives were taken in the wars in raids between England and Scotland, and many English prisoners were living as slaves in Malcolm's lands. They were of somewhat better education and superior culture to the Scots and gradually advanced the civilization of their captors. Many of these were set free by the queen.
     "When she met poor persons, she gave them liberal alms, and if she had nothing of her own to left to give, she asked her attendants for something that she might not let Christ's poor go away empty-handed. the ladies, gentlemen, and servants who accompanied her took a pride and pleasure in offering her all they had, feeling sure that a double blessing would reward their alms when given through the saintly queen.
     "She provided ships at a place on the Firth of Forth, still called "The Queen's Ferry," that all persons coming from distant parts on pilgrimage to St. Andrews might be brought across the water free of charge. She also gave houses and servants on either shore for their accommodation, that they might find everything necessary for their repose and refreshment and might pay their devotions in peace and safety. Besides this, she built homes of rest and shelter for poor strangers in various places. From childhood she had diligently studied the Holy Writ and having a keen intelligence and an excellent memory, she knew and understood the Scriptures wonderfully well. She delighted to consult learned and holy men concerning the sacred writings, and as she had a great gift for expressing herself clearly, they often found themselves far wiser after a conversation with her. Her love for the holy books made her spend much time in reading and studying such of them as she had. She longed to possess more portions of the Word of God, and she sometimes begged Turgot and other learned clergymen to procure them for her. Margaret brought up her eight children very strictly and piously, instructing them in the Holy Scriptures and the duties of their station and associating them in her works of charity. She made a great point of their treating their elders with becoming respect. The fruit of her good training appeared in their lives for long years after her time.
     "There were many holy anchorites living in cells or caves in different parts of Scotland. These the queen occasionally visited, conversing with them and commending herself to their prayers. It was not uncommon in the ancient Celtic Church for devout secular persons to withdraw for a time from association with the rest of the world; they devoted themselves entirely to prayer and meditation for a long or short season, and then returned to the ordinary duties of life. A cave is still shown, not far from Dunfermline where tradition says this holy queen used to resort for solitude and prayer.
     "Her abstinence was so great and her care for her own needs or gratification so small that her feast days were like the fast days of others. She fasted so strictly that she suffered acutely all her life from pain in her stomach, but she did not lose her strength. She observed two Lenten seasons in each year - the forty days before Easter and the forty days before Christmas. During these periods of self-denial, her biographer says that after sleeping for a short time at the beginning of the night, she went into the church and said alone three sets of Matins, then the Offices of the Dead, then the whole Psalter, which lasted until the priests had said Matins and Lauds. She then returned to her room and there, assisted by the king, she washed the feet of six poor persons who were brought there by the chamberlain. After this, she "permitted her body to take a littel slepe or nodde". When it was morning she began her works of mercy again; while the psalms were being read to her, nine little destitute orphans were brought, and she took each on her lap and fed it with her own spoon. While she was feeding the babies, three hundred poor persons were brought into the hall and seated all round it. As soon as Margaret and the king came in, the doors were shut, only the chaplains and a few attendants being present while the king and queen waited upon Christ in the person of His poor, serving them with food and drink. After this meal, the queen used to go into the church and there, with tears and signs and many prayers, she offered herself a sacrifice to God. In addition to the "Hours", on the great festivals, she used to repeat the Psalter two or three times, and before the public Mass she had five or six private Masses sung in her presence. It was then time for her own dinner, but before she touched it she waited on the twenty-four poor people who were her daily care at all seasons; wherever she happened to be, they had to be lodged near the royal residence.
     "She had a Gospel Book which she particularly prized and often read. It had beautiful illuminated pictures, all the capital letters shining with gold. One of her people, when passing through a stream let it fall into the water, but was not aware of his loss and went on. By-and-by the book was missing and was looked for everywhere, and eventually found at the bottom of the stream; the pieces of silk that were between the leaves to prevent the letters rubbing against each other were washed away; the leaves were shaken to and fro by the movement of the water, but not a letter was obliterated. She gave thanks for its restoration and prized it more than ever. This book, with the water stain on the last leaf, is now in the Bodleian Library.
     "For more than six months before her death, Margaret could not ride on horseback and was often confined to bed. Malcolm invaded England many times after 1068. supporting the claim of his brother-in-law Edgar Atheling to the English throne. In 1072, however, he was forced to pay homage to William I, and in 1091, to William II. Shortly before Margaret's death, the king, against her advice, made a raid into Northumberland where he and her eldest son, Edward were slain by Norman forces at Alnwick. Malcolm died at Alnwick Castle on November 13, 1093. The queen, who had a presentiment of it, and said to those that were with her, "Perhaps this day a greater evil has happened to Scotland than any that has befallen it for a long time."
     "Three days after this, she felt a little better and went into her oratory to hear Mass and receive the Holy Communion. She then returned to bed, and growing rapidly worse, begged Turgot and the others who were present to keep commending her soul to Christ with psalms. She asked them to bring her the black rood, which she had brought from Hungary and always regarded with great veneration. It was of gold set with large diamonds and said to contain a piece of the actual cross of Christ. She devoutly kissed and contemplated it, and when she was cold with the chill of death, she still held it in both hands and kept praying and saying the fifty-first psalm.
     "Her son Edgar, who had gone with the king to Northumberland, came into her room to tell her of the death of his father and brother. Seeing his mother was dying, he was afraid to tell her the sad news; but she said, "I know, I know, I conjure you to tell me the truth," and having heard it, she praised God and died, just three days after her husband, on November 16, 1093 at Edinburgh Castle. The Annals of Ulster for 1093 say, "Maelcolaim Mac Donnacha sovereign of Alban and Echbarda his son, slain by the Franks. His queen, viz. Margarita, died through grief before the end of (three) days."
     "While her body still lay in Edinburgh Castle, Malcolm's brother, Donald Bane, assisted by the King of Norway, attacked the castle, but he only watched the gate, thinking the other parts of the fortification inaccessible. Margaret's family and her faithful attendants escaped by a postern called the West Yhet, taking with them the revered corpse. A thick mist hid them from the enemy. They crossed the sea and arrived without hindrance at Dunfermline, where they buried her according to her own wish. Malcolm was succeeded briefly by his brother Donald Bane. Margaret's brother, Edgar the Atheling took Margaret's children to England, and for fear of the Normans, gave them privately to friends and relations to be brought up. He afterwards helped to restore them to their country.
     "Margaret's sons continued her work, which contributed greatly to a golden age in Scotland for two hundred years after her death. First to the throne was son, Duncan II. Three other sons also succeeded to the throne: Edgar (r. 1097-1107), Alexander I (r. 1107-24), and David I (r. 1124-53). Margaret and Malcolm's daughter, Edith, also known as Matilda, became the wife of England's King Henry I, the fourth son of William the Conqueror.
     "Margaret was worshipped without authority until 1250 or 1251 when she was canonized by Innocent IV who ordered her sacred body to be translated from its first tomb. On July 19, 1297, all the arrangements being made the men who were appointed to raise the body, found it impossible to do so; stronger men were ordered to lift it and tried in vain; still more men were brought, but all their strength was unavailing. Evidently the saint objected to what was being done. The clergy and all present prayed earnestly that the mysterious opposition might cease and the sacred rite be completed. After some time an inspiration was granted to a devout member of the congregation; namely, that the saint did not wish to be separated from her husband. As soon as they began to take up his coffin, that of his dutiful wife became quite light and easy to move, and both were laid on one bier and translated with ease to the honorable place prepared for them under the high altar.
     "In 1693 Innocent XII transferred Margaret's festival from the day of her death to June 10, though November 16 is still the day celebrated in Scotland. The bodies are said to have been acquired by Philip II, king of Spain, who placed them in the church of St. Lawrence in his new palace of the Escorial in two urns. The head of St. Margaret, after being in the possession of her descendant, Queen Mary Stuart, was secreted for many years be a Benedictine monk in Fife; thence it passed to Antwerp, and about 1627 it was translated to the Scotch college at Douai and there exposed to public veneration. It was still to be seen there in 1785; it was well preserved and had very fine fair hair. Neither the heads, the bodies nor the black rood can now be found, but the grave of Margaret may still be seen outside the present church of Dunfermline. Her oratory in Edinburgh castle is a small church with sturdy short pillars and a simple but beautiful ornamental pattern at the edge of its low rounded arches. It was falling to ruin when, in 1853, Queen Victoria had it repaired and furnished with colored glass windows.
     "Sources:
#A Dictionary of Saintly Women in Two Volumes, Vol. II, Agnes B. C. Dunbar, George Bell & Sons, London, England, 1905
#Life of St. Margaret Queen of Scotland, R. M. Turgot, trans. by Forbes Leith
#The Lives of the Kings & Queens of England, edited by Antonia Fraser, University of California Press, Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA by arrangement with Weidenfeld & Nicholson Ltd., London, England, 1975“.

; Per Med Lands:
     "MARGARET ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][1937], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin, as discussed above. Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[1938]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[1939]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[1940]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[1941]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[1942].
     "m (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) as his second wife, MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife Sibylla of Northumbria (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093, bur Tynemouth, later transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, and later still to Escorial, Madrid)."
Med Lands cites:
[1937] For example, Weir (2002), p. 186.
[1938] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[1939] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 2.
[1940] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. II, p. 32.
[1941] Annals of Ulster, 1093.5, p. 529.
[1942] Attwater (1970), p. 230.5


; Per Genealogy.EU (Cerdic 2): “C2. St. Margaret, *Hungary ca 1045, +Edinburgh Castle 16.11.1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey; m.1069 Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scotland (*ca 1031 +13.11.1093)”.16
; Per Weis: “Malcolm III Canmore, King of Ss 1058-1093, b. 1031, crowned at Scone, 17 Mar. 1057/8, slain whileieging Alnwick Castle,k 13 Nov. 1093; m. (1) 1059, Ingibiorg, dau. of Earl Finn arnason, and wid. of Thorfill Sigurdson, Earl of Orkney; m. (2) Dunfermline, 1068/9, Margaret (1-21), St. Margaret of Scotland, d. 16 Nov. 1093, daul of Prince Edward (1-20) the Exiled, and a descendant of Alfred the Great (1-14), Clovis I (240A-3), Cerdic (1-1), and perhaps Hengist, and ancestress of the royal line of England. (CP V:736, VI:641-642; SP I; 1; Dunbar, 25-34, 280-81. Gens. 12-21: Land (1901) I:546-57. For the whole line above the following sources are given by Ritson, Gens. 2 -20; Cronica regum Scotorum; Nomina regum Scot. et Pirct; Annals of Tigernach (d. 1080, cf. Roderic O'Flaherty, Ogygia, published in Latin, 1685, in English, 1793, pp. 477-478); Duan, a Gaelic of Irish poem, abot 1050. Gens. 4-20: Annalles Ultonianses (Annals of Ulster), a faithful chronology of great antiquity, but uncertain date. Gens. 11-20: Cronica de Mailros (chronicle of Melrose). Gens. 12-22: William of Malmesbury (d. aft. 1142), 56; ASC; Florence of Worcester (d. 1118). Gens. 13-17: Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictonan et Scotorum, ends 994, written at the time of Kenneth II. The Chronicun elegiacum extends to Gen. 20. Gens. 16-20: Historia de Dunelmensis ecclesia, pp. 156-178 (by Turgotus, d.l 1115, or Simon of Durham, d. 1130); Chronicle of Innisfallen; Synchronisms of Flan and Bute (d. 1056); Scala Chronica, 1365).”.17
; Per Med Lands:
     "MALCOLM, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife [Sibylla of Northumbria] (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093[306], bur Tynemouth St Albans[307], transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[308], transferred again to Escorial, Madrid). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[309]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[310]. [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[311]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[312]. It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".] The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[313]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[314]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[315]. He suggests[316] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[317]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[318]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[319]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[320]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[321].
     "Per Med Lands: [:TAB:]"MALCOLM, son of DUNCAN I King of Scotland & his wife [Sibylla of Northumbria] (1031-killed in battle near Alnwick, Northumberland 13 Nov 1093[306], bur Tynemouth St Albans[307], transferred to Dunfermline Abbey, Fife[308], transferred again to Escorial, Madrid). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum names "Malcolaim filii Donnchada" in one of its lists[309]. The Chronicon of Marianus Scottus records that "Moelcol…filius Donchael" succeeded Lulach in 1058[310]. [Florence of Worcester records that "dux Northhymbrorum Siwardus" defeated "rege Scottorum Macbeotha" in battle, dated to 1054, and installed "Malcolmum regis Cumbrorum filium" in his place[311]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[312]. It is not clear that these two accounts refer to the future King Malcolm III: it is uncertain why King Malcolm would be called "regis Cumbrorum filium".] The Annals of Tigernach record that “Lulach rí Alban” was killed by “Mael-Coluimb, son of Donnchad” in 1058[313]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[314]. He succeeded in 1058 as MALCOLM III "Caennmor/Bighead" King of Scotland, crowned 25 Apr 1058 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire. Duncan cites sources which demonstrate that this nickname was first applied to King Malcolm III in the 13th century[315]. He suggests[316] that it was originally applied to King Malcolm IV who, he asserts, suffered from Paget's disease, involving a deformation of the bones particularly observable in the skull, and was later misapplied to King Malcolm III. King Malcolm supported the claim to the English crown of Edgar ætheling, whose sister he had married, and led plundering raids into England. Florence of Worcester records that he did homage to William I King of England at Abernethy in Aug 1072[317]. The same source records that King Malcolm invaded Northumberland in 1091, but did fealty to Willam II King of England after peace was negotiated between the two kings[318]. Florence of Worcester records that "rex Scottorum Malcolmus et primogenitus filius suus Eadwardus" were killed in battle in Northumbria "die S Bricii" [13 Nov] by the army of "Rotberti Northymbrorum comitis"[319]. William of Malmesbury records that he was killed, with his son Edward, by Morael of Bamborough, steward of Robert Mowbray Earl of Northumberland, while leading a raid into England[320]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Mael Coluim son of Donnchad, over-king of Scotland, and Edward his son, were killed by the French in Inber Alda in England"[321]. [:TAB:]"[m] [firstly] ([before 1058]) ---. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls’-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[322]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail. [:TAB:]"m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][323], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[324]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[325]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[326]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[327]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[328]." Med Lands cites: [LIND:][306] Florence of Worcester, 1093, p. 196. [307] MP, Vol. V, 1257, 633. [308] Malmesbury, 250, p. 237. [309] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 133. [310] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1057, MGH SS V, p. 558. [311] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 212. [312] Annales Dunelmenses 1054, MGH SS XIX, p. 508. [313] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 290. [314] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, VII, p. 192. [315] Duncan (2002), pp. 51-2. [316] Duncan (2002), p. 75. [317] Florence of Worcester, 1072, p. 177. [318] Florence of Worcester, 1091, p. 193. [319] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 31. [320] Malmesbury, p. 237, footnote 2. [321] Annals of Ulster, 1093.5, p. 529. [322] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 76. [323] For example, Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 186. [324] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067. [325] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 2. [326] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 32. [327] Annals of Ulster, 1093.5, p. 529. [328] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 230.[:LIND] [firstly] ([before 1058]) ---. The identity of the mother of King Malcolm's sons Duncan and Donald is uncertain. The absence of any reference to her in Scottish sources is best explained if her relationship with the king ended before his accession in 1058. However, this is not totally consistent with the estimated birth dates of her sons as shown below. It should be noted that King Duncan II, in his charter dated 1093, makes no reference to his mother, which implies that his father's relationship with her may have been short-lived and informal. Orkneyinga Saga records that “Ingibjorg the Earls’-Mother” (Ingibjörg Finnsdatter, widow of Thorfinn "the Black" Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, daughter of Finn Arnisson [later Jarl of Halland in Denmark]) married “Malcolm King of Scots, known as Long-neck” and that “their son was Duncan, King of Scots, father of William”[322]. There must be considerable doubt about whether this can be correct. Ingibjörg's [first] husband died in [1060/65]. King Malcolm's marriage to Queen Margaret is dated to 1070, three years after her arrival at the Scottish court. Although this provides sufficient time after the death of her first husband for the king to have married Ingebjörg, and for Ingebjörg to have died, the chronology for the birth of two sons would be tight. In addition, it is unlikely that either of these sons was born after [1065], as explained further below. If the king had really married Ingibjörg during this time, and if she had given birth to two sons, the absence of any reference to her in either Scottish or English sources is all the more surprising. It is possible that King Malcolm's marriage to Ingibjörg (if it did take place) was more Danico, implying concubinage rather than regular marriage, but this does not change the chronological difficulties. The one puzzle which remains, if the Saga is not correct, is why the author would have fabricated this detail.
     "m [secondly] (Dunfermline Abbey 1070) MARGARET of England, daughter of EDWARD ætheling of England & his wife Agatha --- ([in Hungary] [1046/53]-Edinburgh Castle 16 Nov 1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife, transferred to Escorial, Madrid, her head bur Jesuit College, Douai). Although Margaret's birth is often placed in [1045/46][323], a later birth would be more consistent with the "German" theory of her mother's origin (as discussed in the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS). Margaret's birth as late as 1053 would still be consistent with her having given birth to four children before her daughter Edith/Matilda (later wife of Henry I King of England), whose birth is estimated to have taken place in [1079/80]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Margaret left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland[324]. Florence of Worcester records that "clitone Eadgaro et matre sua Agatha duabusque sororibus suis Margareta et Christina" left England for Scotland, in a passage which deals with events in mid-1068[325]. Florence of Worcester records that "regina Scottorum Margareta" died from grief after learning of the death of her husband and oldest son[326]. The Annals of Ulster record that "his queen Margaret…died of sorrow for him within nine days" after her husband was killed in battle[327]. She was canonised in 1250, her feast day in Scotland is 16 Nov[328]."
Med Lands cites:
[306] Florence of Worcester, 1093, p. 196.
[307] MP, Vol. V, 1257, 633.
[308] Malmesbury, 250, p. 237.
[309] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 133.
[310] Mariani Scotti Chronicon 1057, MGH SS V, p. 558.
[311] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 212.
[312] Annales Dunelmenses 1054, MGH SS XIX, p. 508.
[313] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 290.
[314] John of Fordun (Skene), Book V, VII, p. 192.
[315] Duncan (2002), pp. 51-2.
[316] Duncan (2002), p. 75.
[317] Florence of Worcester, 1072, p. 177.
[318] Florence of Worcester, 1091, p. 193.
[319] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 31.
[320] Malmesbury, p. 237, footnote 2.
[321] Annals of Ulster, 1093.5, p. 529.
[322] Orkneyinga Saga 33, p. 76.
[323] For example, Weir, A. (2002) Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy (Pimlico), p. 186.
[324] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, D, 1067.
[325] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 2.
[326] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, p. 32.
[327] Annals of Ulster, 1093.5, p. 529.
[328] Attwater, D. (1970) The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (Penguin Books), p. 230.13

; Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): “B1. Malcolm III Canmore, King of Strathclyde (1034-40), King of Scotland (1058-93) -cr 25.4.1058 Scone Abbey, *ca 1031, +k.a.nr Alnwick, Northumberland 13.11.1093, bur Dunfermline Abbey, Fife; 1m: ca 1059 Ingiborg Finnsdotter (+before 1070), dau.of Finn Arnarsson of Vjar, Jarl of Halland; 2m: Dunfermline Abbey ca 1069 St.Margaret of England (*ca 1045, +16.11.1093)”.18 She was Canonized in 1250.19

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 226, SCOTLAND 23. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1454] Catholic Encyclopedia on the New Advent Website of Catholic Resources, online http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/, Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Margaret of Scotland at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09655c.htm. Hereinafter cited as Catholic Encyclopedia.
  3. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 2 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ENGLAND,%20AngloSaxon%20&%20Danish%20Kings.htm#Margaretdied1093. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S1426] Jiri Louda (Tables) and Michael Maclagan (text), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (NY: Barnes & Noble Books, 2002), Table 12: Scotland: Kings until the accession of Robert Bruce. Hereinafter cited as Louda & Maclagan [2002] Lines of Succession.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, St. Margaret of Wessex: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002905&tree=LEO
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Edward Atheling of Wessex: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020119&tree=LEO
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agatha of Poland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020120&tree=LEO
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  11. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Donnchada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO
  12. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 170-20, op. 161-2. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIIIdied1093B
  14. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, St. Margaret: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/marga000.htm
  15. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Margaret_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic2.html#MEE
  17. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed, Line 170-21, p. 162.
  18. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  19. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-21.
  20. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:vii.
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Malcolm III Canmore: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002904&tree=LEO&PHPSESSID=4a6f1218fb877cf1c08e71441357136e
  22. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 226, SCOTLAND 23:iv.
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Matilda (Edith) of Scotland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002867&tree=LEO
  24. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#Edithdied1118
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00002908&tree=LEO
  26. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DavidIdied1153B
  27. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Boulogne.pdf, p. 4. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  28. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Mary of Scotland: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00012364&tree=LEO
  29. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#Marydied11161118

Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld1,2,3,4

M, #4252, b. 970, d. 1045
FatherDuncan (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld4 b. c 954, d. 1010
Mother(?) (?) of the Isles
ReferenceGAV26 EDV26
Last Edited16 Dec 2020
     Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld was born in 970 at Athol, Scotland; Boyer says b. ca 978; Genealogics says b. ca 970.2,4 He married Bethóc (Beatrix) (?) of Scotland, daughter of Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland and Ælfgifu “Edith of Ossory” Sigurdsdóttir (?), circa 1000.5,6,7,8,9,10,4,11
Crinán "the Thane" (?) mórmaer of Atholl, Abbot of Dunkeld died in 1045 at Tayside, England; killed in battle against MACBETH.2,5,6,4,11
     ; Per Genealogics:
     "Crinán, 'of the kin of Saint Columba', was the direct ancestor of the founder of Clan Donnachaidh. He inherited the abbey-lands of Dunkeld and Dull in Atholl, and seems to have had some authority in the isles around Iona, perhaps as _herenach_ or abbey-steward. His wife Bethóc was daughter and heiress of the Scoto-Pictish king Malcolm II. Through her, Crinán's son Duncan inherited the throne in 1034.
     "Crinán's second son, Maldred of Allerdale, held the title of Lord of Cumbria and was regent of Strathclyde. It is said that from him, the earls of Dunbar descend in unbroken male line.
     "While the title of Hereditary Lay Abbot was a feudal position that was often exercised in name only. Crinán does seem to have acted as abbot in charge of the monastery in his time. He was thus a man of high position in both clerical and secular society.
     "Crinán was killed in battle in 1045 at Dunkeld."4

; Per Burke's: "CRINAN; Lay Abbot Dunkeld; m c 1000 Bethoc, er dau of MALCOLM II, and was k 1045 in battle against MACBETH (the historic figure who murdered CRINAN's er s DUNCAN I, and subsequently is portrayed as having usurped the Scottish throne, most famously by Shakespeare), leaving, with an er s (DUNCAN I 'The Gracious', King of Scots 1034-40; ancestor of the Sovereigns of England and later England, Ireland, Scotland, Great Britain etc; see 1967 edn ROYAL LINEAGE.)5"

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 313.4

; Plase Note: It seems unlikely that Crinán was actually the son of Duncan. In the words of The Henry Project:
"Since the abbacy of Dunkeld may have been hereditary in Crínán's family (his grandson Æthelred held the title), it has sometimes been suggested that Crínán was possibly the son of this earlier abbot of Dunkeld whose death is known from both the Irish and Scottish sources [e.g., AU; ESSH 1: 471, 473, 577; KKES 252]. While the relationship is not impossible, the chronology is very long (if true, Crinán would be eighty at his death in battle even if born in the year of his father's death), and there is no known evidence to support it. The alleged relationship cannot be accepted without further evidence."

I have elected to retain the relationship reflected by older sources such as Burke's, but realize that is quite possibly not true. GA Vaut.12,13

; This is the same person as Crínán (or Crónán) at The Henry Project and as Crínán of Dunkeld at Wikipedia.14,12
He was Governor of the Scots Islands.1 He was Lay Abbot of Dunkeld.15 GAV-26 EDV-26 GKJ-27.

; Per Med Lands:
     "CRINAN "the Thane", son of --- (-killed in battle 1045). The primary source which confirms his parentage has not yet been identified. Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. Mormaer of Atholl. He was killed fighting King Macbeth. The Annals of Ulster record that "Crónán abbot of Dún Caillen" was killed in 1045 in "a battle between the Scots themselves"[259]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Crínan abbot of Dunkeld” was killed in 1045 in “a battle between the men of Scotland on one road”[260].
     "m ([1000]) BETHOC, daughter of MALCOLM II King of Scotland & his wife ---. The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[261]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[262]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[263]."
Med Lands cites:
[259] Annals of Ulster, 1045.6, p. 484.
[260] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 277.
[261] Skene (1867), XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon, p. 144.
[262] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.11


; Per Med Lands:
     "BETHOC . The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[174]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[175]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[176]. Lady of Atholl.
     "m ([1000]) CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl, son of --- (-killed in battle 1045)."
Med Lands cites:
[174] Skene (1867), XXI, Genealogy of King William the Lyon, p. 144.
[175] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.
[176] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173.10


; Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): "H1. Bethoc, Lady of Atholl and heiress to Scotland, +after 1018; m.ca 1000 Crinan "the Thane", Lay Abbot of Dunkeld (*ca 975, +1045)"


Per Genealogy.EU (Dunkeld): "Crinan "the Thane", Mormaer of Atholl, Abthane of Dule, Steward of the Western Isles & Lay Abbot of Dunkeld, *ca 975, +k.a.Tayside by Macbeth 1045; m.ca 1000 Bethoc, Lady of Atholl (*ca 984, +after 1018.)16,17"

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 187, NURTHUMBERLAND 1. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 225, SCOTLAND 21.
  3. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), p. 381. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Crinán: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022602&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Dunbar of Mochrum Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/betho000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bethóc ingen Mail Coluim meic Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022603&tree=LEO
  10. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#BethocMCrinanMormaerdied1045. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  11. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#Crinandied1045
  12. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/crina000.htm
  13. [S1549] "Author's comment", various, Gregory A. Vaut (e-mail address), to unknown recipient (unknown recipient address), 30 May 2020; unknown repository, unknown repository address. Hereinafter cited as "GA Vaut Comment."
  14. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cr%C3%ADn%C3%A1n_of_Dunkeld. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  15. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 172-19, p. 149. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  16. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  17. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, The House of Dunkeld: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  18. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Dunkeld page (The House of Dunkeld): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/dunkeld.html
  19. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DuncanIdied1040B
  20. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Swinton Family Page.
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Maldred, Lord of Allerdale, Regent of Strathclyde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00108330&tree=LEO
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTTISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Maldreddied1045B
  23. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 172-20, p. 164.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.

Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland1,2,3,4,5,6

M, #4253, b. circa 954, d. 25 November 1034
FatherCináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots2,7,8,9,10,4,5,6,11 b. c 925, d. 995
MotherNN (?) of Leinster12,2,6,11
ReferenceGAV29 EDV27
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland married Ælfgifu “Edith of Ossory” Sigurdsdóttir (?), daughter of Sigurd (?) of Ossory.13,14 Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland was born circa 954.15,4,5
Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland died on 25 November 1034 at Glammis Castle, Glamis, Angus, Scotland; The Henry Project (Stewart Ba [ESSG 1: 572, citing the Chronicle of Marianus Scottus (gives exact date); AU (gives year only)].1,16,4,6,11
Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland was buried on 25 November 1034 at St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     954, Scotland
     DEATH     25 Nov 1034 (aged 79–80), Angus, Scotland
     Scottish Monarch. Son of Kenneth II, he acceded in 1005, reigning for 29 years. It was during this time that the kingdom first began to encompass the area of modern-day Scotland. He not only confirmed his hold over the lands between the Tweed and Forth rivers, but also secured Strathclyde. He was murdered at Glamis at the age of 80, by his grandson Duncan, ruler of Strathclyde.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Kenneth II King of Scots 932–995
     Spouse
          Ælfgifu Sigurdsdóttir 962–983
     Children
          Bethoc Ingen Mail Coluim Meic Cinaeda 983–1045
     BURIAL     St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 10 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8622045.16,5,6,11,17
     GAV-29 EDV-27 GKJ-28.

; This is the same person as ”Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malcolm II)” at The Henry Project.

This is the also same person as ”Malcolm II of Scotland” at Wikipedia.11,18

; Per Weis: “Mael-Coluim (Malcolm II), King of Scots, 25 Mar. 1005-1034; fought a battle in 1008 at Carham with Uchtred (d. 1016), son of Waltheof, Earl of the Northumbrians, and overcame the Danes, 1017; published a code of laws; was murdered 25 Nov. 1034."1004. Malcolm the son of Kenneth, a most victorious king, reigned 30 years. 1034. Malcolm king of Scots died." (Ritson II:104-109; Dunbar I: 280; ASC; at thispoint the New Revised Complete Peearage (G.E. Cokayne, vols. I-XII pts, 1 & 2) and the Scots Peerage (Sir James Balfour Paul, 9 vols., 1904-1914) begin the list of Scots kings. CP IX:704; SP I; 1; CP X; Append, A, p. 9 shows Malcolm MacKenneth had 3 daus: Bethoc; Donada m. Sigurd II, Earl of Orkney; and (?) Anieta. See also Marjorie Anderson, Kings & Kingship in Early Scotland).”.6 Máel Coluim (Malcolm) mac Cináeda II (?) King Of Scotland was also known as Malcolm II (Mael-Coluim mac Cináeda) King of the Scots.3

; Per Med Lands:
     "MALCOLM ([954]-Glamis Castle, Angus 25 Nov 1034, bur Isle of Iona). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[163]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Kinet xxx…" as king[164]. It is tempting to suggest that either he, or his first cousin with the same name, spent time at the court of Edgar King of England during his youth, as "Malcolm dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar relating to land in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk dated 970[165], but there is no proof of the co-identity of these persons. He succeeded in 1005 as MALCOLM II King of Scotland. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, who succeeded as king[166]. He attacked northern England in 1006. King of Lothian from [1016], becoming effective ruler of the whole of Scotland. The Historia Regum of Simeon of Durham records a battle between "Huctredum filium Waldef comitem Northymbrorum" and "Malcolmum filium Cyneth regem Scottorum" at "Carrum" in 1018[167]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Malcolm submitted to Canute King of England in 1031, along with "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc"[168]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun defended Cumbria against King Canute, who agreed that it should be ruled by Malcolm’s grandson Duncan[169]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1034 of "Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland"[170]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1034 of “Mael-Coluímb son of Cinaed king of Scotland”[171]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcolm mac Kynnat Rex" reigned for 30 years, died "in Glammes" and was buried "in Yona"[172]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[173].
     "m ---. The name of Malcolm's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[163] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21.
[164] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131.
[165] S 779.
[166] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXVIII, p. 173.
[167] Arnold, T. (ed.) (1885) Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia (London), Vol. II, Symeonis Historia Regum, 130, p. 156.
[168] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle E, 1031.
[169] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XLI, p. 176.
[170] Annals of Ulster, 1034.1, p. 474.
[171] Annals of Tigernach II, p. 266.
[172] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.
[173] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 175.5


; Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): “G1. Malcolm II, Prince of Cumbria, King of Strathcylde (991-995)+(997-1018), King of Scotland (1005-34), *ca 954, +murdered at Glamis Castle, Angus 25.11.1034, bur Isle of Iona, last sovereign of the MacAlpine dynasty; m.N, an Irishwoman from Ossory”.19 He was King of Scotland: MALCOLM II MAC KENNETH Sub-king of Cumbria and Strathclyde, 990-5,997-1005; king of Scotland, 1005-34. Born: c954. Died: 25 November 1034, aged 80, at Glamis Castle. Buried: Iona. Married: c980 (date and spouse's name unknown): 2 or 3 daughters. Malcolm's father, KENNETH II, was keen to secure a patrilineal right of succession to the Scottish throne to avoid the inter-dynastic squabbles that threatened to weaken the kingdom. He was not especially successful in this, but in 990 he sought to establish his son as his heir by proclaiming him king of Strathclyde and Cumbria. Since MALCOLM MAC DONALD was still king of Strathclyde (unless records that suggest he died in 990 are correct) the kingdom was clearly divided, and Malcolm mac Kenneth probably ruled Cumbria. When Kenneth was killed in 995, Malcolm was also deposed from Strathclyde, by the rival faction of CONSTANTINE In, but upon his death in 997, Malcolm regained Strathclyde. This was an unhealthy situation, as the new king of the Scots, KENNETH III, was evidently seeking to establish right of succession for his own son GIRIC II, who was made either co-ruler or a sub-king, possibly also in Strathclyde. The two rulers tolerated each other for eight years then, in 1005, Malcolm defeated and slew Kenneth and Giric at the battle of Monzievaird. Malcolm was not only a strong and ambitious ruler, he was a strategist and an opportunist. His long reign allowed him to expand and consolidate his kingdom, though some of his actions, not least the slaying of Kenneth and Giric, sowed seeds of discontent that would result in the killing of his grandson DUNCAN by MACBETH thirty years later. Malcolm first endeavoured to establish his rulership over Bernicia, extending his lands beyond the Tweed. He was severely defeated by Uhtred of Northumbria in the siege of Durham in 1006 and it was twelve years before Malcolm again tested the lands to the south. He did, however, ensure an ally in the kingdom of Strathclyde. This kingdom was traditionally ruled by the heir to the throne. Malcolm had only daughters and his grandson, Duncan, was too young to rule, so Malcolm appointed OWEN as ruler of Strathclyde. Owen was almost certainly older than Malcolm, and as the youngest son of DONALD of Strathclyde had probably never entertained aspirations to kingship, so this elevation made him a strong friend and ally to Malcolm and helped strengthen the lands to the south.
In the meantime Malcolm sought to make an alliance with the Norse earls of Orkney and, in 1008, he married his daughter to SIGURD II. The main reason was to have the Norsemen as allies against the men of Moray, who for the last fifty years had worked against the main Scottish royal line, and Malcolm granted Sigurd lands as far south as Moray. Malcolm seemed to be seeking Sigurd's recognition of Malcolm as his overlord, even though the earls of Orkney were subjects of the kings of Norway. In Malcolm's eyes, though, this gave him authority over Moray, Caithness and Sutherland. The arrangement soon worked in Malcolm's favour for, in 1014, Sigurd was killed at the battle of Clontarf in Ireland and while his sons by an earlier marriage squabbled over the succession, Malcolm proclaimed his young grandson, THORFINN, as earl of Caithness, even though he was only five. The young boy seemed to be much loved by the nobility of Orkney and by the king of Norway, so that he soon obtained claims on parts of Orkney until he became sole earl in 1030. With this support in the north Malcolm believed he had stifled the problems in Moray (even if only temporarily).
In 1018, following the annexation of Lothian two years earlier, Malcolm turned his attention to Bernicia and, with Owen of Strathclyde's help, he defeated Earl Eadulf at Carham on Tweed. Immediately afterward Malcolm bestowed much bounty on the church at Durham and claimed overlordship of southern Bernicia. In that same year he installed his grandson, Duncan, as king of Strathclyde. Malcolm was now in his early sixties, and the first king to rule the territory of Scotland as we know it today. He might have sought to rest upon his achievements. However, he needed to be ever vigilant. The rulers of Moray continued to fight for control and began a series of raids and skirmishes from the north; one of these, in 1027, resulted in the burning of Dunkeld. At the same time, CANUTE had established himself in
England and was intent upon ensuring he had no opposition from the north. In 1031 records suggest that Canute "invaded" Scotland, although there is some doubt as to whether he led an army, or simply made a royal visit. The latter seems more likely because, had Canute succeeded in marching north with an army and defeating Malcolm, he would almost certainly have continued with a campaign to conquer Scotland, of which he was capable. In all likelihood Canute's main aim was to secure a friendly alliance with Malcolm who, now in his mid-seventies, could in any case offer little resistance. However, either now, or soon after, Canute did reclaim Bernicia and Cumbria, with the result that the borders of Scotland as we know them today were finally established.
In his old age Malcolm did what he could to secure the throne for Duncan. In 1032 he endeavoured to slaughter the family of Kenneth III's grand-daughter Gruoch by surprising them in their fortress at Atholl and burning it to the ground. GILLECOMGAIN was killed but Gruoch, his wife, and their son LULACH escaped. A few months later he arranged the murder of Kenneth III's great-grandson Malcolm, who was still only an infant. The next year Malcolm died, probably in his eightieth year. Later historians claimed he was murdered as part of the continuing interdynastic struggle, and this is just possible, though unlikely. He was the last male heir of KENNETH MACALPIN. Malcolm had lived long enough for Duncan to inherit the throne, although his future was far from certain. between 1005 and 1034.6,16,11

Family 1

Child

Family 2

Ælfgifu “Edith of Ossory” Sigurdsdóttir (?)
Children

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 20. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/betho000.htm
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022605&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#_ftnref163. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 170-18, p. 161.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  7. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cináed mac Mail Coluim: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022620&tree=LEO
  9. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954B
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/kenne000.htm
  11. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/malco001.htm
  12. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, NN of Leinster: http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/nn000000.htm
  13. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 15 December 2020), memorial page for Malcolm I King of Scots (897–954), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8618603, citing St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8618603. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 15 December 2020), memorial page for Ælfgifu “Edith of Ossory” Sigurdsdóttir (962–983), Find a Grave Memorial no. 159485909, citing St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Gathering Roots (contributor 47213048), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/159485909
  15. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  16. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 390-392. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  17. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 15 December 2020), memorial page for Malcolm II King of Scots (954–25 Nov 1034), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8622045, citing St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8622045
  18. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  19. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  20. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 225, SCOTLAND 20:iii.
  21. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Donada: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022613&tree=LEO
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#DonadaM1FindlaechMcRoryM2SigurdDigri
  23. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors, p. 225, SCOTLAND 20:ii.
  24. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Bethóc ingen Mail Coluim meic Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022603&tree=LEO
  25. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#BethocMCrinanMormaerdied1045

Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots1,2,3,4

M, #4254, b. circa 925, d. 995
FatherMael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots5,6,7,8,4,9 b. c 895, d. c 954
MotherUnknown (?)6,4
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots married NN (?) of Leinster; per The Henry Project: "According to Berchan's Prophesy, a cryptical Scottish king list posing as verse prophesy, the mother of Malcolm II was a women from Leinster, a statement not supported elsewhere, but which there is no good reason to doubt [ESSH 1: 573-4]. She was presumably a member of one of the local dynasties ruling in Leinster at the time, but no known evidence would tell us to which of these dynsties she belonged (if any)."10 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was born circa 925 at Scotland.7
Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots died in 995 at Fettercairn, Scotland; killed by his own men.1,11,7,8,4
Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was buried in 995 at St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     932
     DEATH     995 (aged 62–63)
     Scottish Monarch. Son of Malcolm I, he acceded in 971, ruling until 995. He waged war on the Britons, and received from King Edgar of the Anglo-Saxons all the lands called Lothian, between the Tweed and the Forth. He was murdered at Fettercairn by his own subjects through an act of treachery. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Malcolm I, King of Scots 897–954
     Siblings
          Dubh, King of Scots 930–966
     Children
          Malcolm II, King of Scots 954–1034
     BURIAL     St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotlan
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 10 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8620887.8,12
     Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 312/3.7 GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ-29.

; This is the same person as ”Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II)", Balduinus Calvus)” at The Henry Project.4

; Per Genealogics:
     “Cináed mac Mail Coluim, anglicised as Kenneth II, was the son of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, Malcolm I, King of Scots. He succeeded King Cuilé mac Iduilb on the latter's death at the hands of Amdarch of Strathclyde in 971.
     “The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba was compiled in Kenneth's reign, but many of the place names mentioned are entirely corrupt, if not fictitious. Whatever the reality, the Chronicle states that'(h)e immediately plundered (Strathclyde) in part. Kenneth's infantry were slain with very great slaughter in Moin Uacoruar.' The Chronicle further states that Kenneth plundered Northumbria three times, first as far as Stainmore, then to Cluiam and lastly to the River Dee by Chester. These raids may belong to around 980, when the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records attacks on Cheshire.
     “In 973 the Chronicle of Melrose reports that Kenneth, with Máel Coluim I (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill), the king of Strathclyde, 'Maccus, king of very many islands' (i.e. Magnus Haraldsson (Maccus mac Arailt), king of Mann and the Isles) and other kings, Welsh and Norse, came to Chester to acknowledge the overlordship of the English king Edgar 'the Peaceful'. It may be that Edgar here regulated the frontier between the southern lands of the kingdom of Alba and the northern lands of his English kingdom. Cumbria was English, the western frontier lay on the Solway. In the east, the frontier lay somewhere in later Lothian, south of Edinburgh.
     “The Annals of Tigernach, in an aside, name three of the Mormaers of Alba in Kenneth's reign in entry in 976: Cellach mac Findgaine, Cellach mac Baireda and Donnchad mac Morgaind. The third of these, if not an error for Domnall mac Morgaind, is very likely a brother of Domnall, and thus the Mormaer of Moray. The Mormaerdoms or kingdoms ruled by the two Cellachs cannot be identified.
     “The feud which had persisted since the death of King Indulf (Idulb mac Causantin) between his descendants and Kenneth's family persisted. In 977 the Annals of Ulster report that 'Amlaib mac Iduilb (Amlaib, son of Indulf), king of Scotland, was killed by Cináed mac Domnaill.' The Annals of Tigernach give the correct name of Amlaib's killer: Cináed mac Mail Coluin, or Kenneth II. Thus, even if only for a short time, Kenneth had been overthrown by the brother of a previous king.
     “Adam of Bremen tells that Svend II 'Forkbeard' found exile in Scotland at this time, but whether this was with Kenneth, or one of the other kings in Scotland, is unknown. Also at this time, Njal's Saga, the Orkneyinga Saga and other sources recount wars between 'the Scots' and the Northmen, but these are more probably wars between Sigurd II Lodvisonn 'Digri', jarl of Orkney, earl of Caithness, and the Mormaers, or kings, of Moray.
     “The Chronicle says that Kenneth founded a great monastery at Brechin.
     “Kenneth was killed in 995, the Annals of Ulster say 'by deceit' and the Annals of Tigernach say 'by his subjects'. Some later sources, such as the Chronicle of Melrose, John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun provide more details, accurately or not. The simplest account is that he was killed by his own men in Fettercairn, through the treachery of Finnguala (also called Fimberhele), daughter of Cuncar, Mormaer of Angus, in revenge for the killing of her only son.
     “The Prophecy of Berchán adds little to our knowledge, except that it names Kenneth 'the kinslayer', and stated he died in Strathmore.
     “Kenneth's son Malcolm II (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) was later king of Alba. Kenneth is believed to have had a second son, probably named Dúngal. Sources differ as to whether Boite mac Cináeda should be counted a son of Kenneth II or of Kenneth III (Cináed mac Duib).”.7 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was also known as Cináed (Kenneth II) mac Máel Coluim King of Scotland.3 Cináed (Kenneth) II (?) King of the Scots was also known as Kenneth II (Cináed) (?) King of the Scots.3

; This is the same person as ”Kenneth II of Scotland” at Wikipedia.13

; Per Med Lands:
     "KENNETH (-maybe murdered Finella's Castle, Fettercairn [995], bur Isle of Iona). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Cinadius filius Maelcolaim" succeeded after the death of Colin, adding that after one year he invaded Saxony and brought back "filium regis Saxonum"[151]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[152]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Kinet filius Malcolin xxii annis et ii mensibus…" as king[153]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Kenneth the son of Malcolm and brother of King Duff" succeeded as king in 970 after Culen was killed and reigned for twenty-four years and nine months[154]. He succeeded in 971 as KENNETH II King of Scotland. Florence of Worcester records that "subreguli eius octo…Kynath…rex Scottorum, Malcolm rex Cumbrorum, Maccus plurimarum rex insularum et alii quinque Dufnal, Siferth, Huwal, Jacob, Juchil" submitted to King Eadgar at Chester and rowed him on the river Dee, dated to [973] from the context[155]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Kenneth II decreed a change to the Scottish royal succession to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed", in opposition to "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen, and Gryme son of Kenneth son of King Duff"[156]. The same source adds that the king’s opponents persuaded "the daughter of Cruchne, Earl of Angus…Finele" to murder the king in revenge for the death of her son which he had ordered[157]. The Annals of Ulster record that "Cinaed son of Mael Coluim king of Scotland was deceitfully killed" in 995[158]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Kynnath mac Malcolm" reigned for 24 years and 2 months, was killed "a suis hominibus in Fetherkern" through the treachery of "Finuele filie filie Cunthar comitis de Anguss" whose only son had been killed by the king[159]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[160].
     "m ---. The name of Kenneth's wife is not known. The Prophecy of Berchán (dated to the early 11th century?[161]) records that the mother of King Malcolm II came from Leinster[162]. If this report is accurate, Kenneth’s status suggests that his wife would have been the daughter of one of the kings of Leinster (see the document IRELAND). Insufficient information is known about the several 10th century Leinster kings to be able to guess which one might have been her father."
Med Lands cites:
[151] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9.
[152] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21.
[153] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131.
[154] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXVIII, p. 163.
[155] Florentii Wigornensis Monachi Chronicon, Vol. I, p. 142.
[156] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIX and XXXII, pp. 165 and 166.
[157] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXXII, p. 167.
[158] Annals of Ulster, 995.1, p. 426.
[159] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 152.
[160] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174.
[161] Hudson, B. T. (1996) Prophecy of Berchán: Irish and Scottish High-kings of the Early Middle Ages (Greenwood Press), 183, pp. 52, 201 Limited preview in Google Books. I am grateful to Matthias Zimmermann for sending me details of this source in an email dated 31 Aug 2018.
[162] Hudson (1996), 183, pp. 17-19, [snippet view only in Google Books].8
He was King of Scotland: KENNETH II Scotland, 97 1-95. The son of MALCOLM I, Kenneth came to the throne during a period of inter-dynastic rivalry over the succession. There were at least three other factions at work: the rulers of Moray, who continued to cause trouble in the north though they had, as yet, made no serious claims on the Scottish throne; the rulers of Strathclyde, who were normally seen as heirs to the throne of Scotland and whose own heir, Rhydderch, had killed Kenneth's predecessor, CUILEAN; and finally the descendants of AED, whose family alternated in the kingship. At the same time as Kenneth's succession, his distant cousin, OLAF, brother of Cuilean, claimed the throne. Olaf's claim did not seem to be recognized by the English. It was Kenneth who attended the convention at Chester in 973, on the succession of EDGAR, along with other Celtic princes, and promised their fealty to the English. At this meeting Edgar confirmed Kenneth's right to the lands of Lothian, which had been captured by INDULF twenty years earlier and which now became accepted as part of the Scottish realm. It was a crucial meeting in the development of defining the state of Scotland.
Kenneth was keen to preserve Scotland as a united kingdom, and endeavoured to rid the succession of dynastic rivalry by agreeing with the Scottish magnates that the succession should become patrilinear, passing from father to son, rather than alternating between dynasties. This seems to have been only partly accepted, for it would take at least a generation before the dispossessed princes passed away and the process became accepted as the norm. For six years the rivalry continued between Kenneth and Olaf before Olaf was slain in 977. However the rivalry over succession only passed on to the next generation with Olaf's nephew, CONSTANTINE, and Kenneth's great-nephew, GIRIC, eventually conspiring against Kenneth to cause his downfall and murder. He died in rather mysterious circumstances at Finella's Castle near Fettercairn. Nevertheless it was Kenneth's descendants who subsequently regained and retained the Scottish throne.
Little else is recorded of Kenneth's reign, other than that he also got involved in a dynastic dispute between the earl of Orkney, LIOT, and his brother Skuli, whom Kenneth seems to have made earl of Caithness. This was an interesting development because it suggested that the earls of Orkney recognized that Kenneth had authority over all the mainland territory of Scotland, whereas otherwise they owed their allegiance to the king of Norway. This, and the fact that he retained the throne for over twenty years amidst such opposition says much for his strength of character and abilities. He remained friendly with the kings of Strathclyde, whom he could so easily have overthrown in favour of his own son, should he have so wished. This suggests a king who was strong-willed but tolerant, qualities that were passed on to his son, MALCOLM II. between 971 and 995.2,11 He was King of Scots (King of Alba) between 971 and 995 at Scotland.14,13

Family 1

Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 19. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 389-390. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  3. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/kenne000.htm
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:511-6; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 252 ff.
  6. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cináed mac Mail Coluim: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022620&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  8. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  9. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022619&tree=LEO
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/kenne000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:573-4.
  11. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/kenne000.htm
  12. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 29 June 2020), memorial page for Kenneth II, King of Scots (932–995), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8620887, citing St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8620887. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  13. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenneth_II_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cináed mac Mail Coluim, Kenneth II, King of Scots 971-995: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022620&tree=LEO
  15. [S1361] Mike Ashley, Ashley (1998) - British Kings, p. 381.
  16. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco001.htm
  17. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022605&tree=LEO
  18. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#_ftnref163
  19. [S2372] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 8th ed. w/ additions by Wm R. and Kaleen E. Beall (Baltimore, 1992: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2004), Line 170-18, p. 161.. Hereinafter cited as Weis [2004] "Ancestral Roots" 8th ed.
  20. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Malclom II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/malco001.htm

Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots1,2,3

M, #4255, b. circa 895, d. circa 954
FatherDomnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts4,5,6,7,2,3 d. 900
ReferenceGAV31 EDV29
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots married Unknown (?)3 Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots was born circa 895.2
Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots was buried circa 954 at St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     897
     DEATH     954 (aged 56–57)
     King of Scotland. Born Máel Coluim I Mac Domnaill, he ascended the throne (943) after the abdication of his cousin Constantine who had opted for the monastic life. Both the Annals of Ulster and The Chronicles of Alba report that his reign, which lasted until 954, was characterized by continuous struggles and fragile alliances with England as well as battles to stem the frequent invasion attempts by the Gaels and Norwegians. Malcolm I is also a character from legends and from Berchan's prophecy. However, according to Ulster it is almost certain that he was killed near Cinn Chàrdainn (Kincardine-on-Forth) during a fight with the warriors of Erik I the Viking. Bio by: Lucy & Chris
     Family Members
     Parents
          Donald II King of Scots 862–900
     Children
          Dubh King of Scots 930–966
          Kenneth II King of Scots 932–995
     BURIAL     St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 9 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8618603.8
Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots died circa 954; said by conflicting sourcers to have been killed by the men of Mearns at Fetteresso, or by the men of Moray at Ulum.1,9,2,3
     ; This is the same person as ”Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malcolm I)” at The Henry Project.

This is also the same person as ”Malcolm I of Scotland” at Wikipedia.10,11 GAV-31 EDV-29 GKJ-30. He was Per Genealogics:
     “Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (anglicised as Malcolm I) was the son of Donald II Dasachtach, king of Scots. He himself became king of Scots when his cousin Causantin mac Aeda abdicated to become a monk. In 945 Edmund I 'the Magnificent', king of England, having expelled Amlaib Cuarán, king of Dublin and York, from Northumbria, devastated Cumbria and blinded two sons of Domnall mac Eógain, king of Strathclyde. It is said that he then 'let' or 'commended' Strathclyde to Malcolm I in return for an alliance. What is to be understood by 'let' or 'commended' is unclear, but it may well mean that Malcolm had been the overlord of Strathclyde and that Edmund recognised this while taking lands in southern Cumbria for himself.
     “The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba says that Malcolm took an army into Moray 'and slew Cellach'. Cellach is not named in the surviving genealogies of the rulers of Moray, and his identity is unknown. Malcolm appears to have kept his agreement with the late English king, which may have been renewed with the new king, Edmund having been murdered in 946 and succeeded by his brother Edred. Erik I 'Blood Axe', king of Norway, took York in 948, before being driven out by Edred, and when Amlaib Cuaran again took York in 949-950, Malcolm raided Northumbria as far south as the Tees, taking 'a multitude of people and many herds of cattle' according to the Chronicle. The Annals of Ulster for 952 report a battle between 'the men of Alba and the Britons (of Strathclyde) and the English' against the foreigners, i.e. the Northmen or the Norse-Gaels. This battle is not reported by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and it is unclear whether it should be related to the expulsion of Amlaib Cuaran from York or the return of Erik 'Blood Axe'.
     “The Annals of Ulster report that Malcolm was killed in 954. Other sources place this most probably in the Mearns, either at Fetteresso following the Chronicle, or at Dunnottar following the Prophecy of Berchán. He was buried at Iona. Malcolm's sons Dubh and Cináed were later kings.”.2

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 312.2 Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots was also known as Máel Coluim (Malcolm I) mac Domnaill King of Scotland (Alba).12 Mael-Coluim (Malcolm) I mac Domnaill (?) King of the Scots was also known as Malcolm I (Mael-Coluim) King of the Scots.

; Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): “E1. Malcolm I, King of Scotland (942/3-955), +killed by men of Moray 954, bur Isle of Iona; m.NN”.13

; Per Med Lands:
     "MALCOLM [Maelcoluim], son of DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland & his wife --- (-killed Vlurn [954], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Mael filio Domnail" succeeded King Constantine II and reigned eleven years[127]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin), Custantin mac Aeda, Maelcolaim mac Domnall, Illolb mac Custantin, Dub mac Maelcolaim, Cuillen mac Illiulb…" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th century[128]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Duneuald ix…" as king[129]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine "made room for Malcolm, son of Donald, to reign" in 943 and that he reigned for nine years[130]. He succeeded in 942 as MALCOLM I King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm travelled to "Moreb" and killed "Cellach"[131]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that in 945 Edmund King of England "ravaged all Strathclyde and ceded it to Malcolm king of Scots" in return for an alliance, which was renewed by Edmund's brother and successor King Eadred to whom "the Scots gave oaths and promised to do his will in all things"[132]. The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales records that "Strath Clyde was devastated by the Saxons" in 944[133]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 954 of "Mael Coluim son of Domnall king of Scotland…killed"[134]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Malcolm was killed "in Fodresach id est in Claideom"[135]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcom mac Donald" reigned for 9 years, was killed "a Morauiensibus" and was buried "in Yona insula"[136]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Malcolm mack Dovenal" reigned for 9 years, was killed "in Vlurn a Moraviensibus" and was buried at Iona[137]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm "was killed at Ulrim" after reigning for nine years and three months[138].
     "m ---. The name of Malcolm's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[127] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, pp. 8-9.
[128] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21.
[129] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131.
[130] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXIV, p. 158.
[131] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 9.
[132] Anglo-Saxon Chronicle D 945 and 946.
[133] Williams ab Ithel, J. (ed.) (1860) Brut y Tywysogion, or the Chronicle of the Princes of Wales (London) ("Brut y Tywysogion (Williams)"), p. 21.
[134] Annals of Ulster, 954.2, p. 400.
[135] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 10.
[136] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151.
[137] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174.
[138] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XXV, p. 159.3
He was King of Scotland: MALCOLM (I) Scotland, 943-54. He was the son of DONALD II and inherited the Scottish throne on the abdication of CONSTANTINE II. It is possible he may have been nominated as king of Strathclyde on the death of OWEN in 937, but records are uncertain on this, though there seems to have been some inter-dynastic strife in Strathclyde during this period (see under DONALD MAC DONALD). At this time OLAF SITRICS0N, the Norse king of York, whom Malcolm supported, had been driven out of York by EDMUND of Wessex in 943 and had sought refuge in Strathclyde as leader of the exiled Vikings of Dublin. Malcolm gave him shelter, but Edmund continued to pursue the Norse and in 945 he invaded Cumbria and Strathclyde, driving out Olaf and deposing the sons of Donald. Edmund gave Malcolm Cumbria on the basis that he would support Edmund in defending northern Britain against the Vikings. This greatly enlarged the Scottish realm, of which Strathclyde was a part, and though Malcolm handed the kingship of Strathclyde to his heir, INDULF, he still retained overlordship and this extended his authority down through what is now Lancashire, almost as far as the Mersey. The kingdom of York remained a problem, for in 947 ERIK BLOODAXE established himself as king in York. His rule was no more favoured by Malcolm than by EADRED of Wessex, so in 948 Malcolm led an army into York, in support not so much of Eadred but of Olaf Sitricson, who was able to use the banishment of Erik as his opportunity to regain the kingdom of York, which he held for three years.
Malcolm experienced problems at both ends of his kingdom. The expulsion of Erik Bloodaxe, whose family found its way back to Orkney, caused further disquiet in the north. The earls of Orkney also ruled over land in Sutherland and Caithness which brought them into conflict with the mórmaers (or earls) of Moray. These (the Cenél Loarn) were descended from the brother of FERGUS mac Erc, the first king of Dál Riata, and their forefathers had, for a period, ruled Dál Riata (see under FERCHAR FOTA). Their descendents therefore believed they had equal claim to the high kingship of Scotland and the rulers of Moray were often designated as kings of Alba (they eventually claimed the throne with MACBETH). The friction caused by the earls of Orkney began to unsettle the men of Moray and this drew Malcolm into battle against them. At the battle of Fetteresso, near Dunnottar, in 954, Malcolm was slain. He was probably nearly sixty at the time of his death. He was buried on Iona, and was succeeded by his second cousin, Indulf. between 943 and 954.14

Family 1

Child

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 18. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022619&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:541-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 251 ff.. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Domnall mac Causantin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022618&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954A
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/donal000.htm
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 15 December 2020), memorial page for Malcolm I King of Scots (897–954), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8618603, citing St. Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8618603. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Seán Mac Airt and Gearóid Mac Niocaill, The Annals of Ulster (Dublin, 1983).
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/malco000.htm
  11. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_I_of_Scotland. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  12. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm
  13. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  14. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 387-388. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  15. [S761] John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths, The Oxford Illiustrated History of the British Monarchy (Great Clarendon Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, 1998), Appendix IV: The Scottish Royal Dynasties. Hereinafter cited as Cannaon & Griffits (1998) - British Monarchy.
  16. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:511-6; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 252 ff.
  17. [S1842] Dorothy Dunnett, King Hereafter (New York: Vintage Books (Random House), 1982 (Oct. 1998)), Appendix chart: Kings of Scotland (Alba) and Earls of Northumberland (England). Hereinafter cited as Dunnett (1982) King Hereafter.
  18. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Cináed mac Mail Coluim: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022620&tree=LEO
  19. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Cináed mac Máel Coluim (Kenneth II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/kenne000.htm

Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts1,2,3,4

M, #4256, d. 900
FatherCausantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots5,6,7,3,4 b. c 830, d. 877
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited15 Dec 2020
     Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts was born circa 855.3
Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts died in 900 at Forres, Morayshire, Scotland.1,2,3
Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts was buried in 900 at St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     862
     DEATH     900 (aged 37–38)
     Scottish Monarch. The son of Constantine I, he killed the usurper, Giric, and succeeded in 889. He ruled until 900. He spent much of his reign battling the Danes and crushing Highland robber tribes. He was killed in battle by the Danes at Dunnottar. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Constantine I 836–877
     Children
          Malcolm I, King of Scots 897–954
     BURIAL     St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 8 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8615427.8,4,2
     ; Per Med Lands:
     "DONALD (-killed Dun-fother [900], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Donivaldus filius Constantini" reigned for eleven years, after the expulsion of Eochlaid[52]. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[53]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Duneval filius Constantini xi…" as king[54]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Donald…the son of…Constantine, son of Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 892 after the death of Gregory and reigned for eleven years[55]. He succeeded his cousin as DONALD II "Dasachtach" King of Scotland. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records the battle "Innisibsolian, inter Danarios et Scottos", won by "Scotti", during King Donald’s reign[56]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that the Scots defeated the Danes during Donald’s reign, and that he was killed "opidum Fother"[57]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 900 of "Domnall son of Constantine king of Scotland"[58]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that King Donald was killed "opidum Fother…a gentibus"[59]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Donald mac Constantine" reigned for 11 years, died "in Fores" and was buried "in Iona insula"[60]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[61].
     "m ---. The name of Donald's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[52] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[53] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21.
[54] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131.
[55] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XX, p. 153.
[56] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[57] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[58] Annals of Ulster, 900.6, p. 352.
[59] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[60] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151.4


; This is the same person as ”Donald II of Scotland” at Wikipedia, and as ”Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II)” at The Henry Project (DE).9,2

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 312.3

; Per Genealogics:
     “Domnall mac Causantin, anglicised as Donald II, was the son of Constantine I, king of Scots. He is given the epithet Dasachtach, 'the Madman', by the Prophecy of Berchán.
     “Donald became king on the death or deposition of Giric (Giric mac Dungail), the date of which is not certainly known but usually placed in 889. The _Chronicle of the Kings of Alba_ reports: 'Doniualdus son of Constantini held the kingdom for 11 years (889-900). The Northmen wasted Pictland at this time. In his reign a battle occurred between Danes and Scots at Innisibsolian where the Scots had victory. He was killed at Opidum Fother (modern Dunnottar) by the Gentiles.'
     “It had been suggested that the attack on Dunnottar, rather than being a small raid by a handful of pirates, may be associated with the ravaging of Scotland attributed to Harald I Haarfagre ('Fairhair'), king of Norway, in the _Heimskingla._ The Prophecy of Berchán places Donald's death in Dunnottar, but appears to attribute it to Gaels rather than Norsemen; other sources report he died at Forres. Donald's death is dated to 900 by the Annals of Ulster and the _Chronicon Scotorum,_ where he is called king of Alba, rather than king of the Picts. He was buried on Iona.
     “The change from king of the Picts to king of Alba is seen as indicating a step towards the kingdom of the Scots, but historians, while divided as to when this change should be placed, do not generally attribute it to Donald in view of his epithet. The consensus view is that the key changes occurred in the reign of Constantine II (Causantin mac Aeda), but the reign of Giric has also been proposed.
     “The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has Donald succeeded by his cousin Constantine II. Donald's son Malcolm (Máel Coluim mac Domnaill) was later king as Malcolm I. The Prophecy of Berchán appears to suggest that another king reigned for a short while between Donald II and Constantine II, saying 'half a day will he take sovereignty'. Possible confirmation of this exists in the _Chronicon Scotorum,_ where the death of 'Ead, king of the Picts' in battle against Ui Imair is reported in 904. This, however, is thought to be an error, referring perhaps to Aedwulf, the ruler of Bernicia, whose death is reported in 913 by the other Irish annals.”.3 GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31. Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts was also known as Donald II King of the Scots and Picts.10 Domnall (Donald) II mac Causantin (?) King of the Scots and Picts was also known as Domnall (Donald II) mac Causantín King of the Scots and Picts.10

; Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): “D1. Donald II, King of Scotland (889-900), +k.a.Dun-fother 900, bur Isle of Iona; m.NN”.11

; Per The Henry Project: "Domnall (Donald), a very obscure king, was referred to as "ri Alban" (king of Alba, i.e., Scotland) in his obituary in the Annals of Ulster [AU], the first of his family so styled in the Irish annals, whereas his father, uncle, grandfather, etc., had been styled "rex Pictorum" (king of the Picts) in the same annals. The period leading up to Donald's reign is extremely obscure, and it is not clear what significance (if any) the change in terminology has. Donald is called Donald II in the numbering of kings that starts with the Donald's famous grandfather Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth I), but that numbering leaves out two or three kings of that name who ruled over Scottish Dál Riata, the small kingdom that eventually evolved into the kingdom of Scotland.“.2 He was King of Scotland: DONALD II Scotland, 889-900. The son of CONSTANTINE I he usurped power by deposing his cousins GIRIC and EOCHAID and took over a kingdom that extended from the farthest north of Britain down to Bernicia and Strathclyde, borders roughly equal to the modern-day Scotland. He was the first ruler to be termed RI Alban, or king of Scotland. However during his reign he lost some territory to the Norse who, having already established themselves amongst the Western Isles, now sought to dominate the north. The earldom of Orkney was created at around this time, and THORSTEIN THE RED laid waste to Caithness and Sunderland establishing his own kingdom in the north. Donald placed his emphasis on integrating the former British kingdom of Strathclyde into Scotland. Having deposed Eochaid, its last king, he also expelled the nobility. In all likelihood many left of their own accord, not wishing to live under Gaelic rule, and they moved south to live with their closer relatives in north Wales. Either Donald, or more likely his successor, CONSTANTINE, established Strathclyde as a sub-kingdom ruled by the heir to the throne. This at least sustained its identity for another century before its final merger into Scotland. Donald died in battle at Forres and was buried on Iona. between 889 and 900.12

Citations

  1. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 17. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  2. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/donal000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Domnall mac Causantin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022618&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954A. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  5. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/causa000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 250 ff.
  6. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022617&tree=LEO
  7. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causant%C3%ADn_mac_Cin%C3%A1eda. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 16 September 2020), memorial page for Donald II, King of Scots (862–900), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8615427, citing St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8615427/donald_ii,_king_of_scots. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_II_of_Scotland
  10. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/donal000.htm
  11. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  12. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 386. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  13. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill (Malclom I): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/malco000.htm. The Henry Project (Stewart Baldwin) cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records], 1:541-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973) pp, 251 ff.
  14. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Máel Coluim mac Domnaill: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022619&tree=LEO
  15. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954B

Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots1,2

M, #4257, b. circa 830, d. 877
FatherCinead (Kenneth) I mac Alpin King of the Picts and Scots2,3 b. 810, d. Feb 858
ReferenceGAV31 EDV31
Last Edited16 Sep 2020
     Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots was born circa 830 at Scotland.2,4
Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots died in 877 at Inverdorat, The Black Cove), Forgan, Fife, Scotland; slain by the Danes; Genealogics says d. 877; Med Lands says d. 876.4,5,6,2,3
Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots died in 877 at Inverness, Scotland.7
Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots was buried in 877 at St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     836
     DEATH     877 (aged 40–41)
     Scottish Monarch. The son of Kenneth MacAlpin, he reigned from 863 - 877. During a battle with the Danes of York at Inverdovat, he was beheaded. His only son Donald succeeded him. Bio by: Kristen Conrad
     Family Members
     Parents
          Kenneth MacAlpin 810–859
     Siblings
          Princess Of Scots
          Aedh King of Scots 838–878
     Children
          Donald II, King of Scots 862–900
     BURIAL     St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland
     Maintained by: Find a Grave
     Originally Created by: Kristen Conrad
     Added: 8 Apr 2004
     Find a Grave Memorial 8615422.1,3,8
     GAV-31 EDV-31 GKJ-32.

; This is the same person as ”Causantín mac Cináeda” at Wikipedia.9

Reference: Genealogics cites: Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London, 1973. 312.2

; Per Med Lands:
     "
CONSTANTINE [Causantin] (-killed in battle Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus [876], bur [Isle of Iona]). The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that "Constantinus filius Cinadi" ruled for 16 years[41]. He succeeded his uncle as CONSTANTINE I King of Scotland. The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "Cinaet mac Ailpin…Domnall mac Ailpin, Custantin mac Cinaeta, (Aedh mac Cinaedha), Girg mac Dungaile, Domnall Dasachtach (mac Custantin)" as Scottish kings, dated to the 9th and 10th centuries[42]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Constantinus filius Kinet xx…" as king, dated to the 9th century[43]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "his nephew Constantine, son of his brother Kenneth the Great" succeeded in 858 on the death of Donald, and reigned for sixteen years[44]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the second year of Constantine’s reign, "Amlaib cum gentibus suis" [Olaf King of Dublin] wasted "Pictaviam" which they occupied from 1 Jan to 17 Mar, and that in the third year "Amlaib" was killed by King Constantine[45]. The Annals of Ulster record that in 872 "Artgal king of the Britons of Strathclyde was killed at the instigation of Constantine son of Cinaed"[46]. The 10th century Pictish Chronicle Cronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum records that, in the fourteenth year of Constantine’s reign, a battle was fought at "Dolair" between "Danarios et Scottos", after which "Normanni" spent a whole year "in Pictavia"[47]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 876 of "Constantine son of Cinaed king of the Picts"[48]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Constantinus mac Kynat" reigned for 15 years, was killed "a Noruagiensibus in bello de Merdo fatha" and was buried "in Iona insula"[49]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 records that "Constantinus mac Kinet" reigned for 16 years, was killed "a Norvagensibus in bello Inuerdofacta" and was buried at Iona[50]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Constantine was killed in battle "at a spot named the Black Den" by the Danes[51]. m ---. The name of Constantine's wife is not known."
Med Lands cites:
[41] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[42] Skene (1867), IV, Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach, p. 21.
[43] Skene (1867), XVI, Chronicle of the Scots 1165, Cronica Regum Scottorum, p. 131.
[44] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XV, p. 147.
[45] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[46] Annals of Ulster, 872.5, p. 330.
[47] Skene (1867), I, The Pictish Chronicle, Cronica de origine antiquorum Pictorum, p. 8.
[48] Annals of Ulster, 876.1, p. 332.
[49] Skene (1867), XXIII, Chronicle of the Scots and Picts 1177, p. 151.
[50] Skene (1867), XXIX, Chronicle of the Picts and Scots 1251, p. 174.
[51] John of Fordun (Skene), Book IV, XVI, p. 148.3
Causantín mac Cináeda (Constantine I) (?) King of Scots was also known as Constantine I (?) King of Scots.

; Per Genealogy.EU (MacAlpine): “C1. Constantine I, King of Scotland (863-877), +k.a.Inverdorat, the Black Cove, Angus 877, bur Isle of Iona; m.NN”.10

; Per Genealogics:
     “Constantine was the son of Cináed mac Ailpin (Kenneth I Macalpin), king of Scots and Picts. He succeeded his uncle Donald I (Domnall mac Ailpin) as Pictish king following the latter's death on 13 April 862. Constantine's reign witnessed increased activity by Vikings, based in Ireland and Northumbria, in northern Britain and he died fighting one such invasion.
     “Very few records of ninth century events in northern Britain survive. The main local source from the period is the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, a list of kings from Cináed mac Ailpin (died 859) to Cináed mac Mail Coluim (died 995). The list survives in the Poppleton Manuscript, a thirteenth century compilation. Originally simply a list of kings with reign lengths, the other details contained in the Poppleton Manuscript version were added from the tenth century onwards. In addition to this, later king lists survive. The earliest genealogical records of the descendants of Kenneth I Macalpin may date from the end of the tenth century, but their value lies more in their context, and the information they provide about the interests of those for whom they were compiled, than in the unreliable claims they contain. The Pictish king lists originally ended with this Constantine, who was reckoned the seventh and last king of the Picts.
     “For narrative history the principal sources are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Irish annals. While Scandinavian sagas describe events in 9th century Britain, their value as sources of historical narrative, rather than documents of social history, is disputed. If the sources for north-eastern Britain, the lands of the kingdom of Northumbria and the former Pictland, are limited and late, those for the areas on the Irish Sea and Atlantic coasts - the modern regions of north-west England and all of northern and western Scotland - are non-existent, and archaeology and toponomy are of primary importance.
     “Writing a century before Constantine was born, Bede recorded five languages in Britain: Latin, the common language of the Church, Old English, the language of the Angles and Saxons, Irish, spoken on the western coasts of Britain and in Ireland, Brythonic, ancestor of the Welsh language, spoken in large parts of western Britain, and Pictish, spoken in northern Britain. By the ninth century a sixth language, Old Norse, had arrived with the Vikings.
     “Viking activity in northern Britain appears to have reached a peak during Constantine's reign. Viking armies were led by a small group of men who may have been kinsmen. Among those noted by the Irish annals, the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle are Ivarr - Imar in Irish sources - who was active from East Anglia to Ireland, Halfdán - Albdann in Irish, Healfdene in Old English - and Amlaib or Oláfr. As well as these leaders, various others related to them appear in the surviving record.
     “Viking activity in Britain increased in 865 when the Great Heathen Army, probably a part of the forces which had been active in Francia, landed in East Anglia. The following year, having obtained tribute from the East Anglian King Edmund, the Great Army moved north, seizing York, chief city of the Northumbrians. The Great Army defeated an attack on York by the two rivals for the Northumbrian throne, Osberht and Aella, who had put aside their differences in the face of a common enemy. Both would-be kings were killed in the failed assault, probably on 21 March 867. Following this, the leaders of the Great Army are sure to have installed one Ecgberht as king of the Northumbrians. Their next target was Mercia where King Burhred, aided by his brother-in-law King Aethelred of Wessex, drove them off.
     “While the kingdoms of East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria were under attack, other Viking armies were active in the far north. Amlaib and Auisle, said to be his brother, brought an army to Fortriu and obtained tribute and hostages in 866. Historians disagree as to whether the army returned to Ireland in 866, 867 or even in 869. Late sources of uncertain reliability state that Auisle was killed by Amlaib in 867 in a dispute over Amlaib's wife, the daughter of Cináed, It is unclear whether, if accurate, this woman should be identified as a daughter of Kenneth I Macalpin, and thus Constantine's sister, or as a daughter of Cináed mac Conaing, king of Brega. While Amlaib and Auisle were in north Britain, the Annals of Ulster record that Aed Findliath, high king of Ireland, took advantage of their absence to destroy the Viking shore fortresses along the northern coasts of Ireland. Aed Finliath was married to Constantine's sister Máel Muire. She later married Aed's successor Flann Sinna. Her death is recorded in 913.
     “In 870 Amlaib and Ivarr attacked Dumbarton Rock, where the River Leven meets the River Clyde, the chief place of the kingdom of Alt Clut, south-western neighbour of Pictland. The siege lasted four months before the fortress fell to the Vikings who returned to Ireland with many prisoners, 'Angles, Britons and Picts', in 871. Archaeological evidence suggests that Dumbarton Rock was largely abandoned and that Govan replaced it as the chief place of the kingdom of Strathclyde, as Alt Clut was later known. King Artgal of Alt Clut did not long survive these events, being killed 'at the instigation' of Constantine two years later. Artgal's son and successor Run was married to a sister of Constantine.
     “Amlaib disappears from Irish annals after his return to Ireland in 871. According to the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba he was killed by Constantine either in 871 or 872 when he returned to Pictland to collect further tribute. His ally Ivarr died in 873.
     “In 875 the Chronicle and the Annals of Ulster again report a Viking army in Pictland. A battle, fought near Dollar, was a heavy defeat for the Picts; the Annals of Ulster say that 'a great slaughter of the Picts resulted'. Although there is agreement that Constantine was killed fighting Vikings in 877, it is not clear where this happened. Some believe he was beheaded on a Fife beach, following a battle at Fife Ness, near Crail. William Forbes Skene read the Chronicle as placing Constantine's death at Inverdovat (by Newport-on-Tay), which appears to match the Prophecy of Berchán. The account in the Chronicle of Melrose names the place as the 'Black Cove' and John of Fordun calls it the 'Black Den'. Constantine was buried at Iona.
     “Constantine's son Domnall (Donald II Dasatach) and his descendants represented the main line of the kings of Alba and later Scotland.”.2 He was King of the Picts and Scots
Per Ashley [1998]: "CONSTANTINE (I) Picts and Scots, 863-77. Son of KENNETH MACALPIN and successor of DONALD I. His reign was dominated by battles against or connivances with the Vikings who had settled in Ireland and who constantly harried the western coast of Scotland. In 866 a major Viking raid, under their king OLAF, reached as far as Forteviot and resulted in the taking of hostages and considerable plunder. Olaf seems to have remained in Pictland and it has been suggested that he even demanded homage from Constantine, so that Olaf may have considered himself ruler of the Picts. By 870 Constantine was evidently in league with Olaf, who had married Constantine's sister. The two of them conspired, along with the other Viking leader, IVARR THE BONELESS, to attack Dumbarton, resulting in the fall of the British kingdom of Strathclyde. Two years later Constantine betrayed the exiled king of Strathclyde, ARTGAL, who was defeated and killed by the Vikings. Constantine's treachery did not benefit him in the same way it had his father. In 875 he was defeated by a Viking army led by Ivarr's brother, HALFDAN. This same army killed Constantine two years later in battle at Crail, when it was returning from York to Dublin. Constantine was buried on Iona. He was succeeded by his brother AED." between 863 and 877.1,2

Citations

  1. [S1361] Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of British Kings & Queens (New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1998), pp. 381, 384. Hereinafter cited as Ashley (1998) - British Kings.
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Constantine I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022617&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#KennethIB. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  4. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  5. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 170-14, p. 147: "...slain in battle by the Norse". Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  6. [S757] Compiled by Carl Boyer 3rd, Medieval English Ancestors of Certain Americans: Many of the English Ancestral Lines Prior to 1300 of those Colonial Americans with known Royal Ancestry but Fully Developed in all Possible Lines (PO Box 220333, Santa Clarita, CA 91322-0333: Carl Boyer 3rd, 2001), p. 225, SCOTLAND 16. Hereinafter cited as Boyer [2001] Med English Ancestors.
  7. [S647] Inc. Brøderbund Software, World Family Tree Vol. 19, Ed. 1 (n.p.: Release date: March 13, 1998, unknown publish date).
  8. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 02 July 2020), memorial page for Constantine I (836–877), Find a Grave Memorial no. 8615422, citing St Oran's Chapel Cemetery-the Reilig Ourain, Isle of Iona, Argyll and Bute, Scotland; Maintained by Find A Grave, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/8615422. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  9. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causant%C3%ADn_mac_Cin%C3%A1eda. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  10. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, The House of MacAlpine: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/macalpine.html
  11. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Domnall mac Causantín (Donald II): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/causa000.htm. The Henry Project cites: Alan Orr Anderson, Early Sources of Scottish History, 2 vols. (Edinburgh, 1922, reprinted Stamford, 1990). [Contains English translations of many of the primary records] 1:451-4; and Marjorie Ogilvy Anderson, Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland (Edinburgh, Totowa, NJ, 1973), p. 250 ff.. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Domnall mac Causantin: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00022618&tree=LEO
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#MalcolmIdied954A

Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria1

M, #4258, d. 992
ReferenceGAV28 EDV28
Last Edited18 Jul 2020
     Thored (Torin) (?) Ealdorman of Northumbria died in 992.2
     ; This is the same person as ”Thored” at Wikipedia.2 GAV-28 EDV-28 GKJ-29.

Reference: Stone [2000] Chart 10-18.3,4,1 He was Ealdorman of York (Jorvik)
See attached map of the Kingdom of Jorvik ca 990 (from Wikipedia: By Yorkshirian at the English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4635458) between 964 and 992.2,5 He was living in 979.2

Family

Child

Citations

  1. [S737] Compiler Don Charles Stone, Some Ancient and Medieval Descents (n.p.: Ancient and Medieval Descents Project
    2401 Pennsylvania Ave., #9B-2B
    Philadelphia, PA 19130-3034
    Tel: 215-232-6259
    e-mail address
    or e-mail address
    copyright 1995, 1998, 1999, 2000, unknown publish date), chart 10-18.
  2. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thored. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  3. [S584] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family # 0167 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  4. [S586] Inc. Brøderbund Software, GEDCOM file imported on 24 Oct 1999 from World Family Tree Vol. 11, Ed. 1, Family #3809 (n.p.: Release date: July 1, 1997, unknown publish date).
  5. [S1953] Wikipedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thored#/media/File:Kingdom_of_Jorvik.png
  6. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Cerdic 1 page (The House of Cerdic): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/brit/cerdic1.html
  7. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Elfgiva: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020113&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.

Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen, comte de Hainaut1,2,3,4

M, #4259, b. between 1029 and 1030, d. 17 July 1070
FatherBaudouin V "le Debonnaire" de Lille (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen5,6,7 b. c 1012, d. 1 Sep 1067
MotherAdèle (Aelis) (?) de France, Cts de Coutance8,6,7,9 b. c 1009, d. 8 Jan 1079
ReferenceGAV27 EDV27
Last Edited27 Aug 2020
     Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen, comte de Hainaut was born between 1029 and 1030 at Flanders, Belgium (now); Genealogics says b. ca 1030.2,10,3 He married Richilde (?) de Mons, comtesse de Hainaut, daughter of Rainier de Hasnon marggrave, circa 1055; her 2nd husband.2,11,12,10,3,7,13
Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen, comte de Hainaut died on 17 July 1070.2,10,3
Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen, comte de Hainaut was buried after 17 July 1070 at Abbaye d'Hasnon, Hasnon, Departement du Nord, Hauts-de-France, France,

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     1030m Mons, Arrondissement de Mons, Hainaut, Belgium
     DEATH     10 Jul 1070 (aged 39–40), Mons, Arrondissement de Mons, Hainaut, Belgium
     Baldwin (Baldwinus) VI Graaf van Vlaanderen was born in 1030. He was the son of Baldwinus V Graaf van Vlaanderen - Comte d'Artois Markgraaf van Ename, also known as Baldwin V - Count de Flanders and Adèle Capet, Princesse de France. He married Richilde, Comtesse de Hainaut, daughter of Roger de Valenciennes, circa 1055. He died on 17 July 1070. Baldwinus VI Graaf van Vlaanderen also went by the nick-name of Baldwin 'the Peaceable'. He gained the title of Comte d'Artois. He gained the title of Comte de Hainaut in 1051. He succeeded to the title of Comte de Flandre in 1067. To the right is a pictorial of the Castle Gravensteen built on the site where a Wooden Fort built by the Counts de Flanders once stood.(Apparently I am Not Allowed to have the Castle Picture portrayed)
     Family Members
     Parents
          Baudouin Comte De Flanders 1012–1067
          Adela Capet 1009–1079
     Spouse
          Richilde Comtesse De Hainaut 1030–1086
     Siblings
          Matilda of Flanders 1031–1083
     Children
          Count Baldwin Baudouin II Of Hainaut 1056–1098
     BURIAL     Non-Cemetery Burial, Specifically: at Hasnon Abby in Hainaut
     Created by: Gene Stephan
     Added: 1 Jul 2014
     Find a Grave Memorial 132175159.3,14
     ; This is the same person as:
”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_VI,_Count_of_Flanders” at Wikipedia and as
”Baudouin VI de Flandre” at Wikipédia (Fr.)15,16

; Per Genealogics:
     “Baudouin was born about 1030, the elder son of Baudouin V, count of Flanders, and Adèle de France. About 1055, Baudouin's father married him to Richilde, heiress of Hainault, widow of Hermann, count of Hainault. By this marriage Flanders took control of the county of Hainault (at that time still a conglomerate of the county of Mons, the margraviate of Valenciennes and the southern county out of the Brabant shire). Baudouin and Richilde had three children, of whom their son Baudouin would have progeny. Baudouin's early death on 17 July 1070 left Flanders and Hainault in the hands of his young son Arnulf III, with Richilde as regent. The countship was soon usurped by Baudouin's brother Robert 'the Friesian', who became Robert I, count of Flanders. The young Arnulf III was killed the next year at the Battle of Cassel, and Baudouin's younger son Baudouin eventually became Baudouin II of Hainault.”.3

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Europäische Stammtafeln, Band II, Frank Baron Freytag von Loringhoven, 1975, Isenburg, W. K. Prinz von. 9.
2. The Complete Peerage, 1936 , Doubleday, H.A. & Lord Howard de Walden. VI 449.
3. Europäische Stammtafeln, J.A. Stargardt Verlag, Marburg, Schwennicke, Detlev (Ed.) 2:5.
4. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.3
Baudouin VI "de Mons" (?) Graaf van Vlaanderen, comte de Hainaut was also known as Baldwin VI "de Mons" (?) Count of Hainault and Flanders.2 GAV-27 EDV-27 GKJ-28.

; Per Genealogy.EU: "G1. Ct Baldwin VI "de Mons" of Flanders (1067-70) and Hainault (1051-70) as Baldwin I, Margrave of Antwerp, *ca 1029, +Hanson Abbey 10.7.1070; m.ca 1055 Richilde, heiress of Hainault (*Mons ca 1031, +15.3.1086), dau.of Reginar V of Hainault."2

; Per Racines et Histoire (Flanders): “Baudouin VI «De Mons» de Flandres ° ~1029/30 + peu avant 17/07/1071 (inh. dans l’Abbaye d’Hasnon) 8° comte de Flandres (1067-1071), comte de Hainaut (= Baudouin 1er 1055-1070, par mariage), (élevé à la cour de l’Empereur Heinrich III, créé par lui markgraf van Antwerpen (1045))
     ép. ~1055 comtesse Richilde de Hainaut ° ~1031 (Mons) + 15/03/1087 (Messine, Sicile) (fille de Rénier V, comte de Hainaut ; veuve de 1) Herman, comte de Hainaut + ~1049 ; veuve, elle ép. 3) Guillaume FitzOsbern de Crépon, earl of Hereford and Essex +X 21/02/1071 (Cassel)) (elle tente vainement de se maintenir au pouvoir en Flandres contre Robert Le Frison) ”.17

; Per Med Lands:
     "BAUDOUIN de Flandre ([1030]-Hasnon Abbey 17 Jul 1070). The Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana names (in order) "Balduinum Haanoniensem, et Robdbertum cognomento postea Iherosolimitanum, et Matilde uxorem Guillelmi regis Anglorum" as the children of "Balduinum Insulanum [et] Adelam"[237]. The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines names (in order) "Balduinum sextum, Robertum cognomento Fresonem, Philippum patrem Guilelmi de Ypra et filias duas Iudith, quam duxit Tostinus comes Nortdanimbronum in Anglia et Mathilda…Normannorum ducissa"[238], which confuses three generations of the family of the counts of Flanders. Baudouin's father sent him to be educated at the court of Emperor Heinrich III, who installed him as count in the march of Antwerp in [1045], although this was taken away in [1050] after his father opposed the emperor[239]. He succeeded in 1055 as BAUDOUIN I Comte de Hainaut, by right of his wife. He succeeded his father in 1067 as BAUDOUIN VI Count of Flanders. The Annales Blandinienses record the death in 1070 of "Baldwinus marchisus, qui Hasnoni sepultus est"[240]. The Annales Elnonenses Maiores record Baudouin's death "XVI Kal Aug" and his burial "Hasnonie"[241].
     "m (1051) as her second husband, RICHILDE, widow of HERMAN Comte de Hainaut, daughter of --- (-Messines 15 Mar 1087, bur Hanson Abbey). The Annales Elnonenses date the marriage of "Balduinus iunior Adele filius" to 1051 (although it incorrectly names his wife "Iudita"), specifying that thereby "castellum Monz obtinuit", and recording that the marriage was "consensu patris"[242] which presumably refers to Baudouin's own father, maybe indicating that Baudouin was a minor at the time. The difficult question of the parentage of Richilde is discussed fully in the document HAINAUT, which sets out her first husband's family. The Annales Blandinienses record that her husband's uncle Robert, having killed her son Arnoul Count of Flanders, captured his mother "Rikilde"[243]. Richilde married thirdly (1070) as his second wife, Guillaume FitzOsbern Earl of Hereford. The Annals of Winchester record the marriage in 1070 of “comitissam Flandriæ” and “rex…nepoti suo Willelmo filio Osberni”[244]. William of Malmesbury records that Baudouin I comte de Hainaut entrusted the guardianship of his two sons to "Philip king of France…and to William Fitz-Osberne", adding that the latter "readily undertook the office that he might increase his dignity by a union with Richilda"[245]. The Complete Peerage, citing "Annales Flandriæ", states that Richilde was taken in battle where her new husband FitzOsbern was killed[246], but the precise reference has not yet been found to this primary source. The necrology of Liège Saint-Lambert records the death "XVII Kal Apr" of "Richildis comitisse"[247]."
Med Lands cites:
[237] Genealogica Comitum Flandriæ Bertiniana MGH SS IX, p. 306.
[238] Chronica Albrici Monachi Trium Fontium 1060, MGH SS XXIII, p. 792.
[239] Nicholas (1992), pp. 49-50.
[240] Annales Blandinienses 1070, MGH SS V, p. 26.
[241] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1067, MGH SS V, p. 13, which records his death "16 Kal Aug" and his burial "Hasnonie".
[242] Annales Elnonenses Maiores 1051, MGH SS V, p. 13.
[243] Annales Blandinienses 1071, MGH SS V, p. 26.
[244] Luard, H. R. (ed.) (1865) Annales Monastici Vol. III, Annales de Wintonia, Annales de Waverleia (London), Annales de Wintonia, p. 29.
[245] Sharpe, Rev. J. (trans.), revised Stephenson, Rev. J. (1854) William of Malmesbury, The Kings before the Norman Conquest (Seeleys, London, reprint Llanerch, 1989), 256, p. 242.
[246] Annales Flandriæ, cited in CP VI 448 footnote m.
[247] Marchandisse, A. (ed.) (1991) L'obituaire de la cathédrale Saint-Lambert de Liège (Brussels), p. 36.7

; Per Racines et Histoire (Herman de Hainaut dit «de Mons» + 03/07/1049 ou ~1050/51 ? comte de Hainaut, Mons, Valenciennes et partie du Brabant (cité charte de Rainier V de donation de Lietgarde à l’Abbaye de Saint-Ghislain entre 1024 et 1039)
ép. ~1040 (contestation pour consanguinité mais approuvé par l’Evêque de Cambrai) Richilde dite «de Hainaut» ° ~1027 + 15/03/1087 (Messine, Sicile) comtesse de Hainaut, etc. (fille de Rainier de Hasnon (fils d’un autre Rainier), marggrave de Valenciennes entre 1045 et 1048/49 ; elle
ép. 2) ~1051 (disp. pap de Léon IX Baudouin VI, comte de Flandres (1067) dit «de Mons» et de Hainaut (1055, Baudouin 1er) + 17/07/1070 > autre postérité : cf Flandres ;
ép. 3) 1070 William FitzOsbern (Guillaume Crespin), seigneur de Breteuil (Normandie), earl of Hereford and Essex, comte de Hainaut +X 20/02/1071 (Mont Cassel) > sans postérité de 3 ) (citée cartulaire de Saint-Bertin) (la prosopographie note l’apparatition du prénom Roger pour l’un de ses fils, inusité chez les Hainaut mais chez les seigneurs de Laon, comtes de Porcien et de Saint-Pol ; une mention la dit parente d’Ade (de Rumigny ?), épouse d’Hugues, Châtelain de Cambrai) )“”.18 He was Count of Mons between 1051 and 1070.15 He was Count of Hainault between 1051 and 1070 at Hainaut, France.2,15 He was 8th Count of Flanders between 1067 and 1070 at West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen), Belgium (now).2,10,15 He was Margrave of Antwerp between 1069 and 1070 at Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium (now).15

Citations

  1. [S752] Marcellus Donald Alexander R. von Redlich, compiler, Pedigrees of Some of the Emperor Charlemagne's Descendants, Vol. I (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1941 (1988 reprint)), p. 277. Hereinafter cited as von Redlich [1941] Charlemagne Desc. vol I.
  2. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Flanders 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/flanders/flanders1.html
  3. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Baudouin VI-I: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00018659&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  4. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes de Flandre(s) Vlaanderen, pp. 4-5: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  5. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Baudouin V: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00004011&tree=LEO
  6. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#BaudouinVdied1067B. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  7. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FLANDERS,%20HAINAUT.htm#BaudouinVIdied1070.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Adèle de France: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00004012&tree=LEO
  9. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Adèle of France: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/adele002.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  10. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 4.
  11. [S1396] Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site, online http://www.burkes-peerage.net/sites/peerageandgentry/sitepages/home.asp, Milford Haven Family Page. Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage & Gentry Web Site.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richilde: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120771&tree=LEO
  13. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richilde: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120771&tree=LEO
  14. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 11 June 2020), memorial page for Baldwin VI Count Of Hainaut (1030–10 Jul 1070), Find a Grave Memorial no. 132175159,; Maintained by Gene Stephan (contributor 48184541) Non-Cemetery Burial, who reports a at Hasnon Abby in Hainaut, at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/132175159. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  15. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldwin_VI,_Count_of_Flanders. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  16. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Baudouin VI de Flandre: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baudouin_VI_de_Flandre. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  17. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes de Flandre(s) Vlaanderen, p. 4: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf
  18. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, Comtes de Hainaut Hennegau, p. 4: http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Hainaut.pdf
  19. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Agnes of Flanders: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120773&tree=LEO
  20. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 5.
  21. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Brabant.pdf, p. 5.
  22. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Baudouin II: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00050002&tree=LEO
  23. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/HAINAUT.htm#BaudouinIIHainautdied1098B

Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor1,2,3

M, #4260, b. 13 June 823, d. 6 October 877
FatherLouis I "The Pious, The Fair, le Debonnaire" (?) King of Aquitaine, King of the Franks, Emperor of the West4,1,5,6,7 b. 16 Aug 778, d. 20 Jun 840
MotherJudith (?) von Altdorf1,4,8,5,6 b. bt 800 - 805, d. 19 Apr 843
ReferenceGAV30 EDV30
Last Edited24 Nov 2020
     Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor was born on 13 June 823 at Frankfurt am Main, Stadtkreis Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany (now); Weis (AR7, line 148-15) says b. 13 Jun 0828. Wikipedia says b. 13 June 823.9,1,10,2,6,11 He married ErmentrudeErmengardeHermintrudis (?) of Orleans, daughter of Eudes/Odo I (?) Comte d'Orléans and Engeltrude de Fézensac, on 14 December 842 at Crecy/Queercy-sur-Oise, France (now);
His 1st wife.9,1,2,6,12,13 Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor married Richilde (Richaut) (?) d'Ardennes, Queen of the West Franks, daughter of Buvinus (?) comte de Metz, abbe laique de Gorze and Richilde (?) d'Arles, on 22 January 870 at Aachen (Aix La Chapelle), Stadtkreis Aachen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (now).1,14,2,6,15,16
Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor died on 6 October 877 at Mt. Cenis, near Avrieux, Brides-les-Bains, Departement de la Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France (now), at age 54.1,4,2,6,11
Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor was buried after 6 October 877 at l'Abbaye royale de Saint Denis, Saint- Denis, Departement Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France (now),

; From Find A Grave:
     BIRTH     13 Jun 823, Frankfurt am Main, Stadtkreis Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany
     DEATH     6 Oct 877 (aged 54), Brides-les-Bains, Departement de la Savoie, Rhône-Alpes, France
     King of West Francia, Nuestria and Lorraine, King of Italy, Holy Roman Emperor 875-877. Charles was the son of Louis I "The Pious" Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and his second wife, Judith of Bavaria. Charles was a grandson of the famous Charlemagne, whose lands would be fought over for centuries.
     Charles was the husband of Ermentrude, daughter of Odo I, Count of Orléans. They married in 842, and they had the following children, most of whom married into or became royalty:
* Judith, wife of Ethelwulf of Wessex, stepson Ethelbald of Wessex and Baldwin I of Flanders. 844–870
* Louis the Stammerer 846–879
* Charles the Child 847–866
* Lothar the Lame, Abbot of Saint-Germain 848–866
* Carloman 849–876
* Rotrud, Abbess of Saint-Radegunde 852–912
* Ermentrud, Abbess of Hasnon 854–877
* Hildegard born 856, died young
* Gisela 857–874
* Godehilde 864-907

     Ermentrude died in 869, and Charles married a second time to Richilde, the daughter of Budwine Count of Italy and Richildis of Arles of Lorraine. They married in 870 and had five more children:
* Rothild, wife of Hugues, Count of Bourges and Roger, Count of Maine 871–929
* Drogo 872–873
* Pippin 873–874
* Son, born and died 875
* Charles 876–877

     Charles was not bald was so hairy he would have been an easy target. It is thought the nickname is satirical. Charles spent most of his life and career fighting his brothers, Lothair, Pepin and Louis for power and land conquered by his grandfather. When Pope John VIII was being attacked by the Saracens, and called for help, his brother, Louis the German, arrived first. Charles turned about only to become ill on the trip back to Gaul. Charles died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bains, and was quickly buried at the nearby abbey of Nantua, Burgundy in France as his attendants were no longer able to tolerate the stench of his decaying corpse. Records state he was later transferred to the Basilique Saint-Denis where his memorial brass was melted down at the Revolution.
     Family Members
     Parents
          Louis I of the Franks 778–840
          Judith of Bavaria 805–843
     Spouses
          Ermentrude 823–869
          Photo     Richilde d'Ardennes de Provence 845–910
     Siblings
          Gisela De France Of Neustria
     Half Siblings
          Princess Carolingian d'Auvergne
          Arnulf de Sens 794–841
          Lothair Carolingian 795–855
          Alpaïs de Paris 795 – unknown
          Rotrude de Aquitania d'Auvergne 802–860
          Ludwig II of East Francia 804–876
     Children
          Judith de France 844–870
          Louis The Stammerer 846–879
          Godehilde Carolingian de France 864–923
          Rothilde de France 871–927
     BURIAL     Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
     Created by: Anne Shurtleff Stevens
     Added: 5 Apr 2012
     Find a Grave Memorial 88088736
     SPONSORED BY Billie Jasper.11
     GAV-30 EDV-30 GKJ-31.

; Per Enc. of World History:
     "Charles the Bald (emperor, 875-77). His kingdom under the Treaty of Verdun was roughly equivalent to modern France, with additions in the north and south and a restricted frontier on the east. Charles was effective master of Laon, but his sway over Neustria was nominal, his control sporadically maintained by war and intrigue. Charles granted three great fiefs as a buffer for his frontiers: the county of Flanders to his son-in-law, Baldwin Iron-Arm (862); Neustria to Robert the Strong as “duke between Seine and Loire” the French duchy of Burgundy to Richard, count of Autun. Brittany (Amorica) was semi-independent under its own dukes and counts in the 9th century and continued so virtually to the end of the Middle Ages. Aquitaine, joined to Neustria for Charles (838), soon emerged as a duchy and was consistently hostile. The duchy of Gascony was joined to Aquitaine in 1052. From Neustria were carved the counties of Anjou (870) and Champagne. Septimania remained refractory.
     "On the death of Louis the Pious, the three heirs contained their struggle, and after the indecisive battle of Fontenay (841), Carolingian prestige sank to a new depth. Charles the Bald and Louis the German formed an alliance against Lothair (who was supported by the clergy in the interests of unity) in the bilingual (Teutonic and Romance) Oaths of Strassburg (842), sworn by the rulers and their armies, each in their own vernacular. They then forced a family compact on Lothair at Verdun.
     "The Treaty of Verdun divided the administration and control of the Carolingian Empire as follows: (1) Lothair kept the (empty) title of emperor and was king of Italy and of an amorphous territory (the “middle kingdom”) which was bounded roughly by the Scheldt, the upper Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône on the west, and by the Rhine and Frisia on the east (i.e., the territory of Provence, Burgundy, and what was later called Lotharingia); (2) Louis the German, as king of the (East) Franks, ruled a realm essentially Teutonic in blood, speech, and geography, extending from the Rhine (except Frisia) to the eastern frontier of the empire; (3) Charles the Bald, as king of the (West) Franks, received a realm (loosely called Carolingia for a time) made up of West Francia and Aquitaine, Gascony, Septimania, etc; mainly Romance in speech; approximating medieval France in general outline."17

; Per Genealogics:
     “Charles 'the Bald' was born in Frankfurt on 13 June 823, the younger son of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis I 'the Pious', by his second wife Judith. When Charles was born, his elder half-brothers were already adults and had been assigned their own regna, or subkingdoms, by their father. The attempts made by Louis 'the Pious' to assign Charles a subkingdom, first Alemannia and then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (in 832, after the rising of his son Pippin I of Aquitaine), were unsuccessful. The numerous reconciliations with the rebellious brothers Lothar I and Pippin, as well as their brother Ludwig II 'the German', king of Bavaria, made Charles' share in Aquitaine and Italy only temporary, but his father did not give up and made Charles the heir of the entire land which was once Gaul and would some day be France. At a Diet near Crémieux in 837, Louis 'the Pious' bade the nobles do homage to Charles as his heir. This led to the final rising of his sons against him, and Pippin I of Aquitaine died in 838, whereupon Charles finally received that kingdom. However Pippin's son Pippin II would be a perpetual thorn in his side.
     “The death of the emperor in 840 led to the outbreak of war between his sons. Charles allied himself with his brother Ludwig II 'the German' to resist the pretensions of the new emperor Lothar I, and the two allies defeated Lothar at the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye on 25 June 841. In the following year, the two brothers confirmed their alliance by the celebrated Oaths of Strasbourg. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Verdun in August 843. The settlement gave Charles 'the Bald' the kingdom of the West Franks, which he had been up till then governing and which practically corresponded with what is now France, as far as the Meuse, the Saône, and the Rhône, with the addition of the Spanish March as far as the Ebro. Ludwig received the eastern part of the Carolingian Empire, known as the East Francia and later Germany. Lothar retained the imperial title and the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He also received the central regions from Flanders through the Rhineland and Burgundy as king of Middle Francia.
     “On 13 December 842 Charles had married Ermentrudis of Orléans, daughter of Eudes, comte d'Orléans, and his wife Ingeltrud. They had nine children of whom Judith and Louis II would have progeny. She separated from Charles after he executed her rebellious brother Guillaume in 866, and retreated to a life in a nunnery.
     “The first years of Charles' reign, up to the death of Lothar I in 855, were comparatively peaceful. During these years the three brothers continued the system of 'confraternal government', meeting repeatedly with one another, at Koblenz (848), at Meerssen (851), and at Attigny (854). In 858, Ludwig II 'the German', invited by disaffected nobles eager to oust Charles, invaded the West Frankish kingdom. Charles was so unpopular that he was unable to summon an army, and fled to Burgundy. He was saved only by the support of the bishops, who refused to crown Ludwig king, and by the fidelity of the Welfs, who were related to his mother Judith. In 860, he in his turn tried to seize the kingdom of his nephew, Charles of Provence, but he was repulsed. On the death of his nephew Lothar II in 869, Charles tried to seize Lothar's dominions, but by the Treaty of Meerssen (870) he was compelled to share them with Ludwig II 'the German'.
     “Beside these family disputes, Charles had to struggle against repeated rebellions in Aquitaine and against the Bretons. Led by their chiefs Nomenoë and Erispoë, who defeated the king at Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), the Bretons were successful in obtaining a de facto independence. Charles also fought against the Vikings, who devastated the country of the north, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine. Several times Charles was forced to purchase their withdrawal at a heavy price. Charles led various expeditions against the invaders and, by the Edict of Pistres of 864, made the army more mobile by providing for a cavalry element, the predecessor of the French chivalry so famous during the next 600 years. By the same edict, he ordered fortified bridges to be put up at all the rivers to block the Viking incursions. Two of these bridges at Paris saved the city during its siege of 885-886.
     “In 875, after the death of the Emperor Ludwig II (son of Charles' half-brother Lothar I), Charles, supported by Pope John VIII, travelled to Italy, receiving the royal crown at Pavia and the imperial insignia in Rome on 29 December. Ludwig II 'the German', also a candidate for the succession to Emperor Ludwig II, avenged himself by invading and devastating Charles' dominions, and Charles had to return hastily to Francia. After the death of Ludwig II 'the German' (28 August 876), Charles in his turn attempted to seize Ludwig's kingdom, but was decisively beaten at Andernach on 8 October 876. In the meantime, Pope John VIII, menaced by the Saracens, was urging Charles to come to his defence in Italy. Charles again crossed the Alps, but this expedition was received with little enthusiasm by the nobles or even by Boso, his regent in Lombardy, and they refused to join his army. At the same time Karlmann, son of Ludwig II 'the German', entered northern Italy. Charles, by then ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, but died while crossing the pass of Mont Cenis at Brides-les-Bain, on 5 or 6 October 877.
     “Charles was succeeded by his son Louis II. Charles seems to have been a prince of education and letters, a friend of the Church, and conscious of the support he could find in the episcopate against his unruly nobles, for he chose his councillors from among the higher clergy, as in the case of Guenelon of Sens, who betrayed him, and of Hincmar of Reims.
     “It is unlikely that Charles was actually bald. Rather, the epithet 'the Bald' is thought to be early medieval humour and historians generally agree that he was probably quite hirsute, with a full head of hair and a beard.”.2

; This is the same person as:
”Charles the Bald” at Wikipedia and as
”Charles II le Chauve” at Wikipédia (Fr.)10,3

Reference: Genealogics cites:
1. Caroli Magni Progenies Neustadt an der Aisch, 1977. , Siegfried Rosch, Reference: 82.
2. Biogr. details drawn from Wikipedia.2
Charles II "The Bald" (?) King of West Franks, King of Aquitaine, Holy Roman Emperor was also known as Charles II (?) of the Franks.14

; Per Med Lands:
     "CHARLES, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[236]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[237]. His father invested Charles as dux in Alemania, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms in Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest brother Lothaire to Italy. This triggered the revolt of his older half-brothers in Mar 830, when they captured their father at Compiègne and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817. His father installed Charles as King of Aquitaine in Sep 832, having deprived Charles's half-brother Pépin. His father restored Aquitaine to Pépin 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise. His father accorded Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire (as well as a royal crown) in 838, and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Bretagne, Aquitaine, Gascony and Septimania at the assembly of Worms 28 May 839. On the death of his father, he became King of the Franks of the West. His brother Emperor Lothaire sought to deprive him of his lands. Charles allied himself with his half-brother Ludwig and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye 25 Jun 841. Under the division of imperial territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks. King of Aquitaine in 848, when he deposed his nephew Pépin II. When King Charles II was faced with widespread rebellion, his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks invaded his kingdom in Aug 858 but was defeated 15 Jan 859 in the Laonnais and forced to withdraw. In 865, Charles agreed with King Ludwig II the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia and proclaimed himself CHARLES King of Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights. A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Charles received the Meuse valley, Lyonnais, Viennois and Vivarais, declaring himself king of Lotharingia in 869. He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II at Rome 25 Dec 875 by Pope John VIII, and elected king of Italy at Pavia in 876[238]. The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death of "Karolus imperator Prid Non Oct 877"[239]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Oct" of "Karolus Calvus rex Francorum"[240]. The necrology of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death 877 “II Non Oct” of “Karoli...secundi imperatoris...”[241].
     "m firstly (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) ERMENTRUDIS, daughter of EUDES Comte [d’Orléans] & his wife Engeltrudis (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium"[242]. Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles[243]. She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons. After she was separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery. The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis[244]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli"[245]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina"[246].
     "m secondly (12 Oct 869, confirmed Aix-la-Chapelle 22 Jan 870) RICHILDIS, daughter of comte BUVINUS [Bouvin] & his wife --- d'Arles (-[30 Jan] [910 or after]). The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage "869 VII Id Oct" of "sororem…Bosonis…Richildem" and King Charles II[247]. She was crowned empress at Tortona in Lombardy by Pope John VIII in 877. “Richildis quondam regina” donated property, among which “in pago Gerbercinse in Langeii villa”, to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 910[248]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Kal Feb" of "RICHILDIS"[249]."
Med Lands cites:
[236] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824, MGH SS V, p. 39.
[237] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597.
[238] Settipani (1993), pp. 302-6.
[239] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 877, MGH SS V, p. 39.
[240] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272.
[241] Longnon ‘Obituaire de l’abbaye de Saint-Germain des Prés’, p. 23.
[242] Annales Bertiniani II 842.
[243] Nithard IV.6, p. 173.
[244] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
[245] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 230.
[246] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.
[247] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
[248] D’Herbomez, A. (ed.) (1898) Cartulaire de l’abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (Paris), 87, p. 157.
[249] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272 (upper-case in original).6


; Per Genealogy.EU (Carolin 1): "B8. [2m.] Charles II "the Bald", King of Aquitaine 838, King of West Franks (843-877), King of (East) Lotharingia (869-870), King of Italy (875-876), Emperor (875-877), *Frankfurt a.M. 15.5./13.6.823, +Avrieux=Bries-les-Bains 6.10.877, bur St.Denis, Paris; 1m: Crecy 14.12.842 *[4381] Ermentrude (*Orleans ca 825/27.9.830, +6.10.869, St.Denis, Aude), a dau.of Ct Eudes I "of Orleans" and Ingeltrude de Paris; 2m: Aachen 22.1.870 *[6483] Richildis of Metz (+910/914), dau.of Buwin of Metz."1

; Per Med Lands:
     "ERMENTRUDIS (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium"[146]. Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles[147]. She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons. After she was separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery. The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis[148]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli"[149]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina"[150].
     "m (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) as his first wife, CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II in 875. "
Med Lands cites:
[146] Annales Bertiniani II 842.
[147] Nithard IV.6, p. 173.
[148] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
[149] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 230.
[150] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.13


; Per Med Lands:
     "RICHILDE (-[30 Jan] [910 or after]). The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage "869 VII Id Oct" of "sororem…Bosonis…Richildem" and King Charles II[654]. Regino names "Bosoni germano Richildis reginæ" when recording this marriage[655]. She was crowned empress at Tortona in Lombardy by Pope John VIII in 877. “Richildis quondam regina” donated property, among which “in pago Gerbercinse in Langeii villa”, to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 910[656]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Kal Feb" of "RICHILDIS" (upper case in the original)[657].
     "m (22 Oct 870) as his second wife, CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis). He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II in 875."
Med Lands cites:
[654] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
[655] Reginonis Chronicon 877, MGH SS I, p. 589.
[656] Gorze 87, p. 157.
[657] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272.16


; Per Genealogy.EU (Bosonides): “B2. Richilde/Richeut, +920; m. Charles II of Franks”.18 He was King of Aquitaine. (See attached map of the Carolingian Empire in 880 By Niconaike - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39615802.) in 838.1 He was King of the West Franks. See attached map (from Wkipedia: By Trasamundo - Own work[1]: 876 Death of Louis the German: east Francia divided between his sons (Karlmann of Bavaria, Louis the Younger of Franconia/Saxony, Charles the Fat of Alemannia and Alsace)[2] Upon the death of Louis the German (876), east Francia was partitioned into three kingdoms: Bavaria went to Carlomann, the nothern sector plus Lotharingia went to Louis the Younger, and the southwestern portion, namely Alsace and Alemannia, was apportioned to Charles the Fat.[3] King Louis, surnamed the German, had died in August of the year 876, leaving three sons. In the division of the kingdom, the southern and eastern privinces, collectively known by the name of Bavaria, were alloted to Carlmann, the elder of the princes; Charles, afterwards surnamed "the Fat", obtained Swabia, Alsace, and Transjurane Burgundy; and Louis, youngest, shared Eastern Franconia, Saony and a part of Lorraine.[4] Charles appears to have received Alsace and the northern Burgundian pagi., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9729998) between 843 and 877.9,1,10,3 He was King of East Lotharingia between 869 and 870.1 He was King of Italy between 875 and 876.1 He was Holy Roman Emperor between 25 December 875 and 877.9,19,1,4,3

Citations

  1. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, online http://genealogy.euweb.cz/index.html, unknown author (e-mail address), downloaded updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
  2. [S1490] Genealogics Website (oiginated by Leo van de Pas, continued by Ian Fettes), online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles 'the Bald': https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020041&tree=LEO. Hereinafter cited as Genealogics Website.
  3. [S4742] Wikipédia - L'encyclopédie libre, online https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikip%C3%A9dia:Accueil_principal, Charles II le Chauve: https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_II_le_Chauve. Hereinafter cited as Wikipédia (FR).
  4. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles 'the Bald': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00120041&tree=LEO
  5. [S2203] Foundation for Medieval Genealogy (FMG): MEDIEVAL LANDS - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#LouisIEmperorB. Hereinafter cited as FMG Medieval Lands Website.
  6. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#CharlesIIleChauveB
  7. [S1702] The Henry Project: The ancestors of king Henry II of England, An experiment in cooperative medieval genealogy on the internet (now hosted by the American Society of Genealogists, ASG), online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Louis "the Pious" (Louis le Pieux, Ludwig der Fromme, Hludowicus): https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/louis000.htm. Hereinafter cited as The Henry Project.
  8. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Judith: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020394&tree=LEO
  9. [S632] Frederick Lewis Weis, Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants, 7th edition (n.p.: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.
    Baltimore, 1992, unknown publish date), line 148-15, p. 129. Hereinafter cited as Weis AR-7.
  10. [S1953] Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, online http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_the_Bald. Hereinafter cited as Wikipedia.
  11. [S2374] Find a Grave, online http://www.findagrave.com/, Find a Grave, database and images (https://www.findagrave.com: accessed 28 June 2020), memorial page for Charles II “The Bald” Emperor of the Holy Empire (13 Jun 823–6 Oct 877), Find a Grave Memorial no. 88088736, citing Saint Denis Basilique, Saint-Denis, Departement de Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France; Maintained by Anne Shurtleff Stevens (contributor 46947920), at: https://www.findagrave.com/memorial/88088736. Hereinafter cited as Find a Grave.
  12. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Ermentrudis of Orléans: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020074&tree=LEO
  13. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#Ermentrudisdied869
  14. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  15. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Richeut/Richardis: https://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020075&tree=LEO
  16. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/FRANKISH%20NOBILITY.htm#RichildeMCharlesIIWestFranksdied877
  17. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth Edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001), p. 173-6. Hereinafter cited as The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed.
  18. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Boson page (Bosonides): http://genealogy.euweb.cz/french/boson.html
  19. [S1224] General Editor Peter N. Stearns, The Encyclopedia of World History, 6th Ed., p. 175.
  20. [S2280] Racines et Histoire, online http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/LGN-frameset.html, http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Flandres.pdf, p. 2. Hereinafter cited as Racines et Histoire.
  21. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Judith: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/judit002.htm
  22. [S2203] FMG Medieval Lands Website, online http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/index.htm, https://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#JudithM1AethelwulfM2AethelbaldM3Baudouin
  23. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Louis II 'the Stammerer': http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00020060&tree=LEO
  24. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Louis II le Bègue (the Stammerer): http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/louis001.htm
  25. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Lothar: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148493&tree=LEO
  26. [S1438] Miroslav Marek, updated 15 May 2003, Carolin 1 page: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/carolin/carolin1.html
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  28. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rotrud: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I0014847&tree=LEO
  29. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Gisela: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I0014846&tree=LEO
  30. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Rothilde de France: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148499&tree=LEO
  31. [S1702] The Henry Project, online https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/, Rothilde: https://fasg.org/projects/henryproject/data/rothi000.htm
  32. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Pippin: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00049999&tree=LEO
  33. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Drogo: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00148498&tree=LEO
  34. [S1490] Genealogics Website, online http://www.genealogics.org/index.php, Charles: http://www.genealogics.org/getperson.php?personID=I00149998&tree=LEO